A Report of the Public Education Committee of
the City Club of Chicago upon Issues involved in
the proposed legislation for Vocational Education in
Illinois containing also a Suggested Draft of a Bill and
A Statement and some Discussion of underlying Principles
The Board of Directors of the City Club of Chicago authorizes the publication of the the report. In taking this action the Board of Directors, in accordance with its usual custom, expressly refrains from passing upon the merits of the propositions contained therein.
In presenting this bill and the accompanying statement and discussion of underlying principles the Education Committee wishes to lay strong emphasis upon its purpose to direct attention toward the wide experience already existing in America in formulating legislation for vocational education. The bill is therefore not a competitor which seem to eliminate other bills, but a careful working out of provisions and methods very many of which have been found in the legislation of Maine Massachusetts, New York, Wisconsin and Ohio. The measure has also embodied features taken from the Cooley  and Blair  bills. We trust that this draft will serve not only to clarify public discussion, but also will be of assistance to the legislative committees that will finally formulate any measure that appears at Springfield.
It seems to us most important that we should approach the undertaking of formulating such legislation not in the spirit of pushing one particular measure over the line, but with the desire to get the best aid and enlightenment possible from all sources.
It is to be hoped when the best possible measure has been formulated there will be the greatest unanimity of support in urging its passage by the legislature.
The appearance of the City Club Report on Vocational Education marked one stage in the progress of the movement to bring about a more practical education for the large majority of our school children. This was a period of investigation, the result of which has
(374) been demonstrate beyond any doubt the need of more systematic vocational instruction in agriculture and commerce and in the domestic and industrial arts.
We are now entering upon a second stage, and the questions under discussion are those relating to administration. We are now trying to determine by whom and under what regulations this more practical vocational education is to be given. Any study of this question leads immediately to the conclusion that local communities in the State are unable under existing school laws to raise the necessary funds for an adequate system of vocational education. This points to the need of State legislation, enabling the local community to levy additional school taxes for specific purposes.
Furthermore most students of the question agree that State aid should be given to local communities establishing such types of education.
Almost simultaneously three or four organizations undertook to formulate bills to be presented at the next General Assembly. In August a conference was held at Springfield under the auspices of the Illinois Bankers' Association, and three separate bills were offered as contributions to the discussion. These were carefully compared and contrasted, and an attempt was made to reach an agreement not as to details, but rather as to statements of the general principles involved. This discussion was conducted on the basis of a set of principles which has been formulated by the Public Education Committee of the City Club, a copy, of which is placed below.
Immediately after this conference one of these bills, the Cooley bill, was made public and has since been the subject of wide discussion.
The committee believes that the time has arrived when the publication of another bill will aid the discussion. It is hoped that the appended bill, together with the accompanying statement, showing wherein its major provisions agree with, or differ from the other bills, will help to clarify the situation.
Comparison of the Three Bills
The committee's bill agrees with the others in involving a lay interest in, and lay control of vocational education, and in insisting that some degree of separation from the non-vocational courses is absolutely essential. The first object is sought by making it compulsory upon the local communities to appoint advisory committees of employers and employes; the second, by giving effective power to a central State board to formulate and enforce standards of vocational education.
It differs from one bill in placing final control of vocational education entirely in the hands of present boards of education. It differs from the other in placing more definite powers of standardization of vocational training in the hands of the State central board.
It agrees with the other bills in providing for articulation and co-operation with the existing schools.
It differs from both, again, in its methods of securing such co-operation and articulation. These methods avoid the two extremes: the creation of separate and independent boards of vocational educational, on the one hand, and, on the other, the granting to present boards of education State aid for vocational education without imposing sufficiently definite standards and safeguards to insure work of a distinctly vocational character.
Discussion of Principles
It is evident that we have here stated one of the most, if not the most, important question at present under discussion, namely, whether it is advisable to establish separate systems of vocational education or to incorporate such work into our existing school organization.
Reduced to their lowest terms, the demands of the advocates of separate administration boards are that the training shall be marked by singleness of purpose, directness of method and definiteness of results, and, second, that the interest and influence of employers and employed be secured, both in the management and the instructional work of the school. The committee believes that this is highly desirable, but that it can be effectively secured within the present organization; that articulation and cooperation are equally necessary features of a successful plan and that these are far more likely to be obtained in a unified system.
We are convinced the ends which are sought by separate administrative boards can be secured by the co-operation of advisory committees of employer and employed, and by the supervision of a central State board; and we have reached this conclusion because, in our opinion the operation of these committees and State boards in Massachusetts and New York has proved both efficient and adequate in securing these ends.
It is desirable that we examine with solve care certain reasons why local administration should be under existing boards of education. In the first place, it should be recognized that all types of schools suggested in either of the bills are at present in operation in the country, and many of them in the State of Illinois. They are doing the kind of work which they were established to do, and doing it effectively. For proof of this; statement, we refer to the report prepared by a Committee on Vocational Education and published by the City Club, where, in detail, is shown the character of the work done in vocational schools in the country which are administered by the regular school boards. In the second place, if it should be decided that separate schools only were to receive State aid for vocational education, an unfortunate condition might well result. It is highly improbable that the older schools would relinquish this work without a struggle, and a competition would arise for the same pupils, especially for children between fourteen and sixteen years of age. The consequent professional jealousy between the two competing boards would make extremely difficult the desirable articulation between the vocational training and the general education upon which it is, or should be, based.
In the third place, it is believed that complete separation in administration will tend to defeat its own purpose, through failure to attract the pupils who most need the specialized instruction. It is the common experience of workers in this field that the parents of such children have an unshaken confidence in the democratic character of the "regular" public school, and that many would refuse to let their children leave this school, which, they believe, offers "equal opportunity to all," and enter a school which appears to be organized merely to teach children how to work. Where all this work is under one roof or one management and where all the pupils form one student body, the specialized vocational work will prove more attractive to those who can profit by it.
In the fourth place, if these vocational schools are separated from the existing public school system, it will be difficult, if not impossible, to remove from them the stigma of being schools solely for the laboring classes. Furthermore, the union of the vocational and the general schools under one administration would make surer the training for citizenship and general intelligence, which should belong to all vocational training.
In the fifth place, the experience of higher educational institutions during the past thirty years has proved conclusively that the separate department in the university, as for example, the department of agriculture, medicine or law, is vastly more efficient than the separate agriculture college, or medical school, or law school. It is contended that the same principles apply to lower schools, and that agricultural and industrial education within the school system will be superior to similar types of training given in schools administered independently.
In the sixth place, it is important to recall that in many forms the vocational motive has appeared in the American public school within the last few years, and has been active and effective. It is not too much to say that this motive has been among the most important educational influences in determining the growth of our school work. It is of the utmost importance that it should not lose its influence, and that the educational growth which it has started should not be checked.
But almost inevitably the separation of schools for vocational training from, the administration of the public school system must tend to confine the action of this motive to these separate schools. Grants of money for vocational work would be inevitably earmarked for the vocational schools, and the whole force of a formal and academic tradition would
(376) be so strengthened as to threaten this new life within the schools.
And, finally the existing public schools need the great popular interest which is now impelling the vocational education movement. The public school system is good in proportion as it holds the respect and interest of all classes of people. Without the regenerating influence of the struggle to keep the school close to the needs of the people, it must inevitably become even more than its l critics deem it to be today a dispenser of a leisure class, formal, and "academic" education. Instead of shunting this popular interest into the narrow channels of a separate vocational system it, should be utilized to keep vigorous the whole institution of public instruction and enable it progressively to adjust itself to the changes needed.
The experience of Massachusetts is enlightening. Starting in 1906, with statutes requiring both a separate State board and separate local boards of vocational education, that commonwealth is now administering this education under the regular State board of education, and the State board is establishing all new schools only in co-operation with the regular local school authorities.
New York, from the beginning of its experience in fostering and maintaining vocational education by the State authorities has worked invariably through the local school boards. It is susceptible of proof that while Massachusetts has established more vocational schools, New York is giving more vocational education.
Special Features of the Bill
All of the above refers, in the main to local administration. The committee's bill, in common with other bills, recognizes the necessity for some measure of State control. It provides however, that this control shall be exercised through the establishment of definite standards for the guidance of the local community, on the basis of which State aid shall be granted or withheld. The committee believes that the State authorities can more effectively control the whole situation in this way than by assuming the task of examining, certificating, and removing teachers, as provided in the Cooley bill.
One of the important measures in any bill will be the method of determining the amount of State aid to which a local community is entitled. The committee's bill presents not only the method of reimbursement on a basis of one-half the net maintenance cost, in which the other bills concur, but it presents also the method of giving a larger initial sum to be gradually reduced during a series of years. While this method is not identical with that of New York, it has been suggested by the New York procedure and by the success with which this has been attended. The latter method will unquestionably be more effective in assisting the smaller and poorer communities to initiate vocational courses.
The commitee's (sic) bill presents two important features not found in the other bills, namely:
1. It puts a definite responsibility on the State authorities to investigate, to aid in the introduction of, and to foster vocational education.
2. It permits local communities to establish either voluntary or compulsory day-continuation schools. In other words, it is permissive in its nature, leaving the feature of compulsion optional with the local community.
Statement of Principles
(Adopted August, 1912, by City Club Committee of Public Education .)
1. State aid should be confined to public schools of the State offering instruction in courses approved by a State board of education and planned for the specific purpose of fitting boys and girls for an occupation or calling. Such aid should be given as reimbursement to the local school authorities for the expense of maintaining vocational instruction.
2. All schools aided should form an integral part of our system of free public schools under the control of our present boards of education.
3. Such schools may include high schools offering approved vocational courses, schools offering approved vocational instruction in agriculture, commerce, domestic arts, and industrial arts, continuation schools, part-time schools, trade schools, and apprentice schools, and all these, whether day or evening.
4. Money for this purpose shall not impair the amount of money heretofore appropriated for school purposes by the State, or by the local communities.
5. Such special aid should be confined to training for vocational pursuits, boys and girls fourteen years of age or over, or such as have been duly certified as having finished approved elementary courses in elementary, village or country schools.
6. The principle of local option should obtain with reference to the establishment in connection with their system of schools by any community, schools or courses for vocational education.
7. The local educational authorities should be required by State law to appoint advisory committees, composed of members representing both employers and employed in the local occupations in agriculture, commerce, and domestic and industrial arts.
8. A State board of education should be established, of which the State Superintendent should be ex-officio the head, for the purpose, among other duties, of administering the provisions of this act. But such legislation should possibly be best undertaken in a separate bill.
9. The proposal for a consolidation of rural schools and the establishment of central or commissioned high schools; for the purpose of giving vocational instruction, is likewise favored.
Synopsis of Bill
Section 1. Construction, or definition of types of training. Approved schools defined.
Section 2. State commission of seven members created. Superintendent of Public Instruction a member ex-officio.
Section 3. Duties of commission: 1. To initiate, to aid in introduction of, and to foster vocational instruction. 2. To make rules and definitions. 3. To report to governor. 4. To employ itinerant instructors for development of agriculture. 5. To control all State aid. 6. To perform other duties as provided in this act.
Section 4. Superintendent of Public Instruction to supervise vocational schools.
Section 5. State aid to be paid annually on certified statement of Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Section 6. Local educational authorities may, and upon petition shall, establish vocational schools. Admission requirements. Length of school term for pupils on farms. Teachers of agriculture may give lectures and demonstrations on farms.
Section 7. Compulsory continuation schools optional with local educational authorities.
Section 8. Non-resident pupils pay tuition fee.
Section 9. Local educational authorities required to appoint advisory committees.
Section 10. Special local tax authorized. Rate not to be impaired by the requirements of a certain act.
Section 11. Reimbursement to local communities on basis of one-half the net maintenance cost. (Alternative Section 11. provides for larger initial reimbursement and smaller subsequent reimbursement.)
Section 12. Country and village schools associated with central high school. Reimbursement. Association boards.
Section 13. Pre-vocational instruction in groups of country or village schools. Reimbursement. Group boards.
Section 14. Courses for teachers required in State University and State Normal Schools.
Section 15. Courses for teachers in selected high schools.
Section 16. State aid made a charge upon the State.
Section 17. Conflicting acts repealed.
Tentative Draft of a Bill for an Act Entitled
An act concerning vocational instruction in agriculture, commerce, and in the domestic and industrial arts.
Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly:
That the following words and phrases as used in this act shall, unless a different meaning is plainly required by the context, have the following meanings:
1. "Vocational instruction" shall mean any instruction, the controlling purpose of which is to fit for profitable employment.
2. "Pre-vocational instruction" shall mean vocational instruction which is adapted to the abilities of persons who have attained the age of twelve years and who are under the age of fourteen years.
3. "Vocational instruction in agriculture" shall mean that form of vocational instruction which fits for the occupations connected with the tillage of the soil, the care of domestic animals, forestry, and other wage-earning or productive work on the farm.
4. "Vocational instruction in commerce" shall mean that form of vocational instruction which fits for occupations in offices and for occupations connected with the selling and distribution of products.
5. "Vocational instruction in domestic arts" shall mean that form of vocational instruction which fits for occupations connected with the household.
6. "Vocational instruction in industrial arts" shall mean that form of vocational instruction which fits for the trades, crafts, and manufacturing pursuits, including the occupation of girls and women. carried on in workshops.
7. A "school or a department of a school giving vocational instruction in agriculture, commerce, or in the domestic or industrial arts" shall mean an organization of courses, pupils and teachers designed to give vocational instruction in agriculture, commerce, or in the domestic or industrial arts, as herein defined. Such a school, or department of a school, may be or may include an "evening continuation class" or a "part-time day or day continuation class."
8. An "evening continuation class" shall mean a class giving such vocational instruction as can be taken by persons already employed during the working day.
9. A "part-time day or day continuation class" shall mean a vocational class for persons giving a part of their working time to profitable employment and receiving in the part-time day or day continuation class instruction complementary to the practical work carried on in such employment. To give "a part of their working time," such persons must give a part of each day, week or longer period to such part-time day or day continuation class during the period in which it is in session.
10. An "approved school or department of a school giving vocational instruction in agriculture, commerce, or in the domestic or industrial arts" is one which under the provisions of this act, and under the rules of the Commission on Vocational Education, hereinafter created, has been approved by the said Commission on Vocational Education as to organization, control, location, plant, equipment, course of study, number and qualifications of pupils, employment of pupils, qualifications of teachers and expenditure of money.
Commission on Vocational Education
Section 2. A commission which shall be styled "Commission on Vocational Education" is hereby created, which shall consist of seven members to be selected as follows:
The State Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be, ex-officio, a member of said commission, and six members, two of whom shall be experienced in educational work, two of whom shall be employers of labor, and two of whom shall be skilled industrial, commercial or agricultural employes, shall be appointed by the governor within twenty days after this act shall take effect. All future appointments to said commission shall be so made that two members thereof shall be persons experienced in educational work, two members thereof shall be employers of labor, and two members thereof shall be skilled industrial, commercial or agricultural employee. The six members so appointed shall hold their respective offices until the next meeting of the General Assembly and until their successors are appointed and qualified. At the next meeting of the General Assembly after this act shall take effect the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint as such commission two persons, who shall hold their offices for two years, two persons who shall hold their offices for four years, and two persons who shall hold their offices for six years- from the first day of January in the year of their appointment and until their successors are appointed and qualified, and every two years thereafter the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the sen-
(379)-ate, shall appoint as such commissioners two persons, who shall hold their offices for the term of six years from the first clay of January in the year of their appointment and until their successors are appointed and qualified.
Before entering upon the duties of his office, each of said commissioners shall make and subscribe and file with the Secretary of State the oath of office prescribed by the constitution of this State, and shall enter into bonds, with security to be approved by the governor, in the sum of $5,000 conditioned for the faithful performance of his duty as such commissioner.
The members of the commission shall receive a per diem of $10.00 for actual service, and shall receive their personal and traveling expenses. They shall be furnished with an office, office furniture and stationery by the State, and shall have power to appoint and fix the salary of a secretary, who shall perform such duties as they assign to him.
Duties of Commission
Section 3. Subject to the provisions of this act, it shall be the duty of the Commission on Vocational Education, and it shall have power:
1. To investigate and to aid in the introduction of vocational instruction in agriculture, commerce and in the domestic and industrial arts; to superintend the establishment and maintenance of schools or departments of schools for the aforesaid forms of instruction; to supervise and approve such schools, or departments of schools, as herein provided; to counsel and confer in such manner as the members may deem best with teachers, school officers, employers, and employee as to the best methods of conducting schools or departments of schools established under the provisions of this act; and to advise and assist boards of education and boards of directors, addressing to them from time to time circular letters relating to the best methods of carrying into effect the purposes of this act.
2. To make such rules and definitions as are necessary to carry into effect the provisions of this act.
3. To submit, through the Superintendent of Public Instruction, to the governor on or before the 1st of December preceding each regular session of the Legislature a full and complete report of its acts and the acts of the Superintendent of Public Instruction in carrying into effect the provisions of this act, showing the amount of aid granted and the districts to which such aid was granted, and the amount of the appropriation necessary for the next biennium.
4. To employ and fix the salaries of such number, not exceeding one hundred, of itinerant instructors as they may deem necessary for the improvement and scientific development of the agricultural interests of the State. Such instructors shall be persons who are proficient in the branches of knowledge which have a direct application to the efficient management of the farm, and shall devote their entire time to giving lectures, demonstrations, and to the promotion of such other educational measures as the commission shall adopt for the benefit of the agricultural interests of the State.
5. To control all State aid given under this act.
6. To perform such other duties as are provided in this act.
Duties of the Superintendent of Public Instruction
Section 4. The Superintendent of Public instruction, and such assistants as shall be appointed by him with the approval of the Commission on Vocational Education, shall have general supervision over the schools, or departments of schools, established under the provisions of this act.
Section 5. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall on the first day of September of each year present a certified statement of the amount of money due each district under the provisions of this act and the rules of the Commission on Vocational Education to the Auditor of Public Accounts, who shall within fifteen days, send to the township treasurer of the township in which each district lies, a warrant upon the State treasurer for the amount of aid due such district.
Section 6. The board of education or board of directors in any district may, and upon petition of 10 per cent of
(380) the legal voters of such district shall establish and maintain as a part of the public school system of such district such schools or departments of schools as the needs of the community may require for vocational instruction in agriculture, commerce, and in the domestic and industrial arts.
In order to secure State aid as provided in this act, boards of education or boards of directors administering such schools, or departments of schools, shall restrict the attendance, for evening instruction to pupils who have attained the age of 17 years; for day instruction to pupils who have attained the age of 14 years, or who have completed eight grades of the elementary school; except that in groups of country or village schools organized and administered as provided in Section 13 of this act the attendance shall be restricted for day instruction to pupils who have attained the age of 12 years and who are under the age of 14 years; except, further that pupils who have attained the age of 14 years and who are employed upon farms shall not be required to attend such schools, or departments of schools, at any time other than during the months of November, December, January February and March; but the technical or special teachers of subjects pertaining to agriculture may be employed for ten months in each year, of while period five months' service shall be in the schools and five months' service on the farms in the district supporting the school or department of a school, giving lectures and demonstrations and promoting such other educational measures as the board of education or board of directors shall determine to be for the benefit of the agricultural interests of the community.
Section 7. In case the board of education or board of directors of any district establishes, in accordance with the provisions of this act, approved vocational instruction in a part-time day school, or department of a school, such board of education or board of directors is authorized to require all persons who are employed and who are under the age of sixteen years to attend such part-time day school, or department of a school, not to exceed eight hours a week between the hours of 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. during the school term.
Section 8. Any resident of any district which does not maintain an approved school, or department of a school, offering the type of vocational instruction which he desires in agriculture, commerce or in the domestic or industrial arts may make application for admission to such a school maintained by another district. The Commission on Vocational Education may approve or disapprove such application and its decision shall be final.
The district in which the person resides who has been admitted, as above provided to an approved school or department of a school offering vocational instruction in agriculture, commerce or in the domestic or industrial arts, shall pay such tuition fee as may be fixed by the Commission on Vocational Education, and the State shall reimburse such district, as hereinafter provided.
Local Advisory Committees
Section 9. In order to secure State aid as provided in this act, boards of education or boards of directors administering schools, or departments of schools, giving vocational instruction in agriculture, commerce, and the domestic and industrial arts, shall, under a scheme to be approved by the Commission on Vocational Education, appoint one or more advisory committees composed of members representing both employers and employed in the local occupations in agriculture, commerce, and tire domestic and industrial arts. It shall be the duty of the advisory committee or committees to counsel with and advise the board of education, or board of directors, and other school officials having the management and supervision of such schools or departments of schools, in all matters pertaining to the needs of the community for vocational instruction in agriculture, commerce, and in the domestic and industrial arts, and to the nature, methods, and efficiency of such instruction.
Special Local Tax
Section 10. The corporate authority authorized by law to levy taxes for school
(381) purposes in any district shall have power to levy a tax at a rate not to exceed ___ mills on the dollar annually on all taxable property in such district for the support of vocational instruction organized under the provisions of this act, which rate shall not be impaired by reason of the requirements of an act entitled "An act  concerning the levy and extension of taxes," approved May 9, 1901, in force July 1, 1901, as amended by an act approved March 29, 1905, in force July 1, 1905 and as amended by an act approved June 14, 1909, in force July 1, 1909, but after all reductions have been made proportionately as required by said act, said rate shall be restored to the figure or percentage fixed by the aforesaid corporate authority. Where the corporate authority authorized by law to levy taxes for school purposes in any district is separate and distinct frown the board of education or board of directors in such district, the tax shall not be levied except upon the application and recommendation of said board of education or board of directors.
The aforesaid tax shall be levied and collected in like manner with the general taxes of such district and shall be known as the "Vocational Education Fund."
Section 11. Any district establishing and maintaining schools, or departments of schools, giving vocational instruction in any or all of the subjects enumerated in this act, shall, so long as such schools or departments of schools comply with the provisions of this act and are approved as provided in Section 1 (10) of this act, be entitled to receive annually from the State, in aid of such schools, or departments of schools, an amount equal to one-half the sum to be known as the net maintenance cost. Such net maintenance cost shall consist of the total sum raised by taxation and expended for the maintenance of such schools, or departments of schools, for a given year, less the amount, for the same period, of tuition claims, paid or unpaid, and receipts from the work of pupils or the sale of products. Such net maintenance cost shall be attested lay vouchers and affidavise signed by the president and clerk of the board of directors or board of education of such district.
Districts that have paid claims for tuition in approved schools or departments of schools shall be reimbursed by the State, as provided in this act, to the extent of one-half the sums expended for such claims.
[The committee presents for consideration the following paragraph as an alternative for the preceding. A similar alternative may be considered for Sections 12, 13 and 15, below. Insert after the words "be entitled," above, the following: "to receive annually from the State the following aid in support of such schools, or department of schools, namely: For each of the first two years of operation of said schools, or departments of school, an amount equal to two-thirds of the sum to be known as the net maintenance cost; for each of the third, fourth, and fifth years of operation of said schools, or departments of schools, an amount equal to one-half of the sum to be letdown as the net maintenance cost; thereafter, an amount equal to one-third the sum to be known as the net maintenance cost. Such net maintenance cost shall consist of the total sum, etc., ... as in Section 11. ]
Organization and Administration of Associated Country and Village Schools
Section 12. In case country or village schools associate with a high school maintaining approved vocational instruction in any or all of the subjects enumerated in this act, it is provided that each country or village school thus associated and the high school with which such association is formed shall be reimbursed annually to the extent of one-half of the net maintenance cost of such association, said net maintenance cost being defined as in Section 11 of this act; provided the establishment of these associate relations and the acceptance of the aid granted shall guarantee to the graduates of the associated schools free tuition in the approved high school.
An association board, representing all the boards of education and boards of directors of the schools associated for the purpose enumerated in this section, and selected under a scheme approved by the Commission on Vocational Education,
(382) shall have power, subject to the approval of the Commission on Vocational Education, to adjust the courses of study in the associated school so as to prepare their pupils for entrance into the approved vocational courses of the said high school, to provide for a supervision of the associated schools by the superintendent or principal or teachers of the said high school, and to determine the conditions of promotion. The annual cost of maintaining such associate relations shall be attested by vouchers and affidavits signed by the president and clerk of each board.
Such an association may be formed by written contract or agreement between the boards of directors and boards of education or by petition and election, as provided by law.
Such an association may be formed by written contract or agreement between the boards of directors and boards of education or by petition and election, as provided by law.
Organization and Administration of Groups of Country and Village Schools
Section 13. Any group of country or village schools formed for employing teachers or supervisors to give pre-vocational instruction in agriculture and in such phases of the industrial and domestic arts as are directly and specifically related to the occupations of men and on the farm, shall, on condition that the pre-vocational instruction given is approved by the Commission on Vocational Education receive, in addition to all other aid, an annual reimbursement to the amount of one-half of the net maintenance cost of such pre-vocational instruction, said net maintenance cost being defined as in Section 11 of this act. The work of said group of schools shall be done under the supervision of a group board representing all the boards of directors and boards of education in the organization and selected under rules to be determined by the Commission on Vocational Education. It shall be the duty of this group board to establish the course of study, to employ competent teachers to supervise and teach these subjects, subject to the approval of the Commission on Vocational Education and to use the State aid received exclusively for maintaining such teaching and supervision.
Such a group relation may be formed by a written contract or agreement between the boards of directors and boards of education of the several districts or by petition and election.
Courses of Training of Teachers
Section 14. The State University and the State Normal Schools are hereby required to offer such courses of instruction and training in all of the subjects enumerated in this act as will adequately prepare teachers to give instruction in such subjects.
Section 15. In case any high school, selected for this purpose by the Commission on Vocational Education, offers special normal instruction and training to students preparing to teach any of the subjects enumerated in this act in country, village or elementary schools, it is provided that such high school shall be reimbursed annually to the amount of one-half the net maintenance cost of such special normal instruction, said net maintenance cost being defined as in Section 11 of this act, and being attested by vouchers and affidavits signed by the president and clerk of the board. Provided that such special normal instruction shall continue through four years of work in the matter and method of teaching any one of the said subjects, and provided that the special normal instruction given shall be approved by the Commission on Vocational Education.
Amount of Aid a Charge Against the State
Section 16. The amount of State aid to districts, as provided for in this act, is hereby made a charge against the State of Illinois, and shall be paid annually to such districts on the warrant of the Auditor of Public Accounts out of any money in the treasury appropriated for such purpose.
Conflicting Acts Repealed
Section 17. All acts or parts of acts conflicting with the provisions of this act are hereby repealed in so far as they are inconsistent therewith.
* * *
Acknowledgement of Sources on Which the Above Bill is Based
Section 1. Taken, with slight modifications, from the Massachusetts law. In small part, original.
Section 2. Taken mainly from the Cooley bill, with unimportant modifications. A part of last paragraph is taken from the Blair bill.
Section 3. Taken, with modifications, from the laws of Maine, Massachusetts, and Wisconsin, and from the Cooley and Blair bills. In small part, original.
Section 4. Taken, with modifications, from the Blair bill.
Section 5. Taken verbatim from the Blair bill.
Section 6. Original, except the provision beginning "except, further," which is taken almost verbatim from the Cooley bill.
Section 7. Based on the Ohio law.
Section 8. Taken, with modifications, from the Massachusetts law.
Section 9. Original. The idea was suggested by the laws of New York and Massachusetts.
Section 10. Original.
Section 11. Taken, with modifications, from the Massachusetts law, and in small part from the Blair bill. The alternative was suggested by the New York experience.
Section 12. A modification of the Blair bill.
Section 13. A modification of the Blair bill.
Section 14. Taken, substantially, from the Blair bill.
Section 15. A modification of the Blair bill.
Section 16. Taken, substantially, from the Cooley bill.
(Signed) CITY CLUB COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC EDUCATION.
By George H. Mead, Chairman,
Frank M. Leavitt,
Ernest A. Wreidt,