The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
Table of Contents
The three chief principles stated --The first principle -- Serviceable actions become habitual in association with certain states of the mind, and are performed whether or not of service in each particular case -- The force of habit -- Inheritance -- Associated habitual movements in man -- Reflex actions -- Passage of habits into reflex actions -- Associated habitual movements in the lower animals -- Concluding remarks.
The Principle of Antithesis -- Instances in the dog and cat -- Origin of the principle -- Conventional signs -- The principle of antithesis has not arisen from opposite actions being consciously performed under opposite impulses.
The principle of direct action of the excited nervous system on the body, independently of the will and in part of habit -- Change of colour in the hair -- Trembling of the muscles -- Modified secretions -- Perspiration -- Expression of extreme pain -- Of rage, great joy, and terror --- Contrast between the emotions which cause and do not cause expressive movements -- Exciting and depressing states of the mind -- Summary.
The emission of sounds -- Vocal sounds -- Sounds otherwise produced -- Erection of the dermal appendages, hairs, feathers, &c., under the emotions of anger and terror -- The drawing back of the ears as a preparation for fighting, and as an expression of anger -- Erection of the ears and raising the head, a sign of attention.
The Dog, various expressive movements of-Cats-Horses -Ruminants Monkeys, their expression of joy and affection-Of pain-Anger- Astonishment and Terror.
The screaming and weeping of infants -- Forms of features -- Age at which weeping commences -- The effects of habitual restraint on weeping -- Sobbing -- Cause of the contraction of the muscles round the eyes during screaming -- Cause of the secretion of tears.
General effect of grief on the system--Obliquity of the eyebrows under suffering--On the cause of the obliquity of the eyebrows-- On the depression of the corners of the mouth.
Laughter primarily the expression of joy--Ludicrous ideas-- Movements of the features during laughter--Nature of the sound produced--The secretion of tears during loud laughter-- Gradation from loud laughter to gentle smiling--High spirits-- The expression of love--Tender feelings--Devotion.
The act of frowning -- Reflection with an effort, or with the perception of something difficult or disagreeable -- Abstracted meditation -- Ill-temper -- Moroseness -- Obstinacy sulkiness and pouting -- Decision or determination -- The firm closure of the mouth.
Hatred -- Rage, effects of on the system -- Uncovering of the teeth -- Rage in the insane -- Anger and indignation-- As expressed by the various races of man -- Sneering and defiance -- The uncovering of the canine tooth on one side of the face.
Contempt, scorn and disdain, variously expressed--Derisive smile--Gestures expressive of contempt -- Disgust -- Guilt, deceit, pride, &c.--Helplessness or impotence -- Patience -- Obstinacy -- Shrugging the shoulders common to most of the races of man -- Signs of affirmation and negation.
Surprise, astonishment -- Elevation of the eyebrows -- Opening the mouth -- Protrusion of the lips -- Gestures accompanying surprise -- Admiration -- Fear -- Terror -- Erection of the hair -- Contraction of the platysma muscle -- Dilatation of the pupils -- Horror -- Conclusion.
Nature of a blush -- Inheritance -- The parts of the body most affected -- Blushing in the various races of man -- Accompanying gestures -- Confusion of mind -- Causes of blushing -- Self-attention, the fundamental element -- Shyness -- Shame, from broken moral laws and conventional rules -- Modesty -- Theory of blushing -- Recapitulation.
The three leading principles which have determined the chief movements of expression--Their inheritance -- On the part which the will and intention have played in the acquirement of various expressions -- The instinctive recognition of expression -- The bearing of our subject on the specific unity of the races of man -- On the successive acquirement of various expressions by the progenitors of man -- The importance of expression -- Conclusion