Brock Lab of Intergroup Processes (BLIP)

Brock Lab of Intergroup Processes (BLIP)


Names of students/postdocs supervised by Dr. Hodson are found at the bottom of the page, along with notes on making requests for papers


  • Hodson, G., & Hewstone, M. (Eds). (2013). Advances in intergroup contact. London, UK: Psychology Press. (click here). Paperback: 978-1-84872-114-2; Hardback: 978-1-84872-054-1



  • Hodson, G., Turner, R.N., & Choma, B.L. (in press). Individual differences in intergroup contact propensity and prejudice reduction. In L. Vezzali & S. Stathi (Eds). Intergroup contact theory: Recent developments and future directions (Series: Current Issues in Social Psychology). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
  • Hodson, G., MacInnis, C.C., & Costello, K. (2014). (Over)Valuing humanness as an aggravator of intergroup prejudices and discrimination. In P.G. Bain, J. Vaes, & J.-Ph. Leyens (Eds), Humanness and dehumanization (pp. 86-110). London, UK: Psychology Press. 
  • Hodson, G., & Hewstone, M. (2013). Introduction: Advances in intergroup contact. In G. Hodson & M. Hewstone (Eds)., Advances in intergroup contact (pp. 3-20). London, UK: Psychology Press. 
  • Hodson, G., Costello, K., & MacInnis, C.C. (2013). Is intergroup contact beneficial among intolerant people? Exploring individual differences in the benefits of contact on attitudes. In G. Hodson & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Advances in intergroup contact (pp. 49-80). London, UK: Psychology Press. 
  • Hodson, G., Hewstone, M., & Swart, H. (2013). Advances in intergroup contact: Epilogue and future directions. In G. Hodson & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Advances in intergroup contact (pp. 262-305). London, UK: Psychology Press. 
  • Hodson, G. (in press). Authoritarian contact: From “tight circles” to cross-group friendships. In F. Funke, T. Petzel, J.C. Cohrs, & J. Duckitt (Eds.), Perspectives on authoritarianism. Weisbaden, Germany: VS-Verlag.
  • Hodson, G., Dovidio, J.F., & Gaertner, S.L. (2010). The aversive form of racism: A revised and condensed edition. In J.L. Lau (Ed.), The psychology of prejudice and discrimination: A revised and condensed edition (Praeger perspectives: Race and ethnicity in psychology) (pp 1-13). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Press.
  • Dovidio, J.F., Pearson, A.R., Gaertner, S.L., & Hodson, G. (2008). On the nature of contemporary prejudice: From subtle bias to severe consequences. In V.M. Esses & R.A. Vernon (Eds.), Why neighbors kill: Explaining the breakdown of ethnic relations (pp. 41-60). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Choma, B.L., & Hodson, G. (2008). And so the pendulum swings. A framework for conceptualizing the causes of prejudice. In M.A. Morrison & T.G. Morrison (Eds), The Psychology of Modern Prejudice (pp. 1-25). New York: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Hodson, G., Esses, V.M., & Dovidio, J.F. (2006). Perceptions of threat, national representation, and support for policies and procedures to protect the national group. In P.R. Kimmel & C.E. Stout (Eds.), Collateral damage: The psychological consequences of America’s war on terrorism (pp. 109-129). Westport, CT, USA: Praeger Press.
  • Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L., Hodson, G., Riek, B.M., Johnson, K.M., & Houlette, M. (2006). Recategorization and crossed categorization: The implications of group salience and representations for reducing bias. In R. J. Crisp & M. Hewstone, (Eds.). Multiple social categorization: Processes, models and applications (pp 65 – 89). Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis).
  • Esses, V.M, Semenya, A.H., Stelzl, M., Dovidio, J.F., & Hodson, G. (2006). Maximizing social psychological contributions to addressing social issues: The benefits of an interdisciplinary perspective. In P.A.M. Van Lange (Ed.), Bridging social psychology: Benefits of transdisciplinary approaches (pp. 403-408). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. D., Nier, J. A., Hodson, G., & Houlette, M. A. (2005). Aversive racism: Bias without intention. In Nielson, L. B., & Nielson, R. L. (Eds.), Handbook on employment discrimination research: Rights and realities (pp. 377-395). The Netherlands: Springer.
  • Dovidio, J.F., Kawakami, K., Gaertner, S.L., ten Vergert, M., Hodson, G., & Falvo, R. (2005). Understanding and addressing racial bias: Insights from Allport. In C.S. Crandall & M. Schaller (Eds.), Social psychology of prejudice: Historical and contemporary perspectives (pp. 57-73). Lawrence KS: Lewinian Press.
  • Esses, V.M, Jackson, L.M., Dovidio, J.F., & Hodson, G. (2005). Instrumental relations among groups: Group competition, conflict, and prejudice. In J.F. Dovidio, P. Glick, & L.A. Rudman (Eds.), On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport (pp. 227-243). Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L., Hodson, G., Houlette, M., & Johnson, K.M. (2005). Social inclusion and exclusion: Recategorization and the perception of intergroup boundaries. In D. Abrams, J. Marques, & M. A. Hogg (Eds.), The social psychology of inclusion and exclusion (pp. 245-264). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
  • Hodson, G., Dovidio, J.F., & Gaertner, S.L. (2004). The aversive form of racism. In J.L. Lau (Ed.), The psychology of prejudice and discrimination (Vol 1., pp. 119-135). Westport, CT: Praeger Press.
  • Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L., Stewart, T.L., Esses, V.M., ten Vergert, M., & Hodson, G. (2004). From intervention to outcome: Processes in the reduction of bias. In W.G. Stephan & W.P. Vogt (Eds.), Education programs for improving intergroup relations: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 243-265). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
  • Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., Nier, J. A., Kawakami, K., & Hodson, G. (2004). Contemporary racial bias: When good people do bad things. In A. G. Miller (Ed.), The social psychology of good and evil (pp. 141-167). New York: Guilford.
  • Esses, V.M., Hodson, G., & Dovidio, J.F. (2003). Public attitudes toward immigrants and immigration: Determinants and policy implications. In C.M. Beach, A.G. Green, & G.R. Jeffrey (Eds.), Canadian Immigration Policy for the 21st Century (pp.507-535). Kingston: John Deutsch Institute, Queen’s University.
  • Sorrentino, R.M., Hodson, G., & Huber, G.L. (2001). Uncertainty orientation and the social mind: Individual differences in the interpersonal context. In J.P. Forgas, K.D. Williams, & L. Wheeler (Eds.), The social mind: Cognitive and motivational aspects of interpersonal behavior (pp. 199-227). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sorrentino, R.M., Walker, A.M., Hodson, G., & Roney, C.J.R. (2001). A theory of uncertainty orientation: The interplay of motivation, cognition, and affect. In A. Efklides, J. Kuhl, & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Trends and prospects in motivation research (pp.187-206). Kluwer: The Netherlands.

Journal Articles

    • Choma, B.L., Haji, R., Hodson, G., & Hoffarth, M.R. (in press). Avoiding cultural contamination: Intergroup disgust sensitivity and religious identification as predictors of interfaith threat, faith-based policies, and Islamophobia. Personality and Individual Differences.
    • Adachi, P.J.C., Hodson, G., Willoughby, T., Blank, C., & Ha, A. (in press). From outgroups to allied forces: The effect of intergroup cooperation in violent and non-violent video games on boosting favorable outgroup attitudes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.  
    • MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (in press). Surfing for sexual sin: Relations between religiousness and viewing sexual content online. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity.
    • Kteily, N., Hodson, G., & Bruneau, E. (in press). They see us as less than human: Meta-dehumanization predicts intergroup conflict via reciprocal dehumanization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
    • Onraet, E., Van Hiel, A., Dhont, K., Hodson, G., Schitterkatte, M., & De Pauw, S. (2015). The association of cognitive ability with right-wing ideological attitudes and prejudice: A meta-analytic review. European Journal of Personality, 29, 599-621. DOI: 10.1002/per.2027
    • Hoffarth, M.R., & Hodson, G. (2016). Green on the outside, red on the inside: Perceived environmentalist threat as a factor explaining political polarization of climate change. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 45, 40-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2015.11.002
    • Hodson, G., & MacInnis, C.C. (in press). Derogating humor as a delegitimization strategy in intergroup contexts. Translational Issues in Psychological Science.  
    • MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (in press). It ain't easy eating greens: Evidence of bias toward vegetarians and vegans from both source and target. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations.  DOI: 10.1177/1368430215618253
    • Hoffarth, M.R., & Hodson, G., (in press). Who needs imagined contact? Replication attempts examining previous contact as a potential moderator. Social Psychology
    • Hodson, G., & Dhont, K. (2015). The person-based nature of prejudice: Individual difference predictors of intergroup negativity. European Review of Social Psychology, 26, 1-42. DOI: 10.1080/10463283.2015.1070018 
    • Hoffarth, M.R., Drolet, C.E., Hodson, G., & Hafer, C.L. (in press). Development and validation of the Attitudes Toward Asexuals (ATA) scale. Psychology and Sexuality
    • Adachi, P.J.C., Hodson, G., & Hoffarth, M.R. (2015). Video game play and intergroup relations: Real world implications for prejudice and discrimination. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 25, 227-236.  DIO: 10.1016/j.avb.2015.09.008
    • MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2015). Why are heterosexual men (vs. women) particularly prejudiced toward gay men? A social dominance theory explanation. Psychology and Sexuality, 6, 275-294. DOI: 10.1080/19419899.2014.987684 
    • Hodson, G., & Skorska, M.N. (2015). Tapping generalized essentialism to predict outgroup prejudices. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54, 371-84. DOI:10.1111/bjso.12083
    • Dhont, K., & Hodson, G. (2014). Does lower cognitive ability predict greater prejudice? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 454-459. DOI: 10.1177/0963721414549750
    • MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2015). The development of online cross-group relationships among university students: Benefits of earlier (versus later) disclosure of stigmatized group membership. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 32, 788-809. DOI: 10.1177/0265407514548394
    • MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2015). Do American states with more religious or conservative populations search for more sexual content on Google? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 137-147. DOI 10.1007/s10508-014-0361-8
    • Hodson, G. (2014). Is it impolite to discuss cognitive differences between liberals and conservatives? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37, 313-314. doi:10.1017/S0140525X13002574
    • Adachi, P.J.C., Hodson, G., Willoughby, T., & Zanette, S. (2015). Brothers or sisters in arms: Intergroup cooperation in a violent shooter game can reduce intergroup bias. Psychology of Violence, 5, 455-462.
    • Choma, B.L., Hodson, G., Hoffarth, M.R., Charlesford, J.J., & Hafer, C. (2014). Reasoning ability and ideology: Inaccuracies in hierarchical category relations (but not numerical ability) associated with right-wing authoritarianism. Journal of Individual Differences, 35, 177-183. DOI: 10.1027/1614-0001/a000142
    • Hoffarth, M.R., & Hodson, G. (2014). Is subjective ambivalence toward gays a modern form of bias? Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 75-80. 
    • Hodson, G., Kteily, N.S., & Hoffarth, M.R. (2014). Of filthy pigs and subhuman mongrels: Dehumanization, disgust, and intergroup prejudice. TPM: Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 21, 267-284.DOI: 10.4473/TPM21.3.3 
    • Hodson, G., Dube, B., & Choma, B.L. (2015). Can (elaborated) imagined contact interventions reduce prejudice among those higher in intergroup disgust sensitivity (ITG-DS)? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45, 123-131. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12281
    • Dhont, K., & Hodson, G. (2014). Why do right-wing adherents engage in more animal exploitation and meat consumption? Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 12-17.
    • Dhont, K., Hodson, G., Costello, K., & MacInnis, C.C. (2014). Social dominance orientation connects prejudicial human-human and human-animal relations. Personality and Individual Differences, 61-62, 105-108. DOI:
    • Choma, B.L., Hanoch, Y., Hodson, G., & Gummerum, M. (2014). Risk propensity among liberals and conservatives: The effect of risk perception, expected benefits, and risk domain. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5, 713-721. DOI: 10.1177/1948550613519682
    • MacInnis, C.C., MacLean, M.H., & Hodson, G. (2014). Does "humanization" of the preborn explain why conservatives (vs. liberals) oppose abortion? Personality and Individual Differences, 59, 77-80.
    • MacInnis, C.C., Busseri, M.A., Choma, B.L., & Hodson, G. (2013). The happy cyclist: Examining the association between generalized authoritarianism and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 789-793
    • Hodson, G., & Costello, K. (2012). The human cost of devaluing animals. New Scientist, 2895, 34-35. 
    • Costello, K., & Hodson, G. (2014). Lay beliefs about the causes of and solutions to dehumanization and prejudice: Do non-experts recognize the role of human-animal relations? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44, 278-288doi: 10.1111/jasp.12221
    • Hodson, G., Choma, B.L., Boisvert, J., Hafer, C., MacInnis, C.C., & Costello, K. (2013). The role of intergroup disgust in predicting negative outgroup evaluations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 195-205.
    • Costello, K., & Hodson, G. (2014). Explaining dehumanization among children: The interspecies model of prejudice. British Journal of Social Psychology, 51, 175-197. DOI:10.1111/bjso.12016 
    • MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2013). Expecting racial outgroups to see "us" as biased: A social projection explanation of Whites' bias meta-stereotypes. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 16, 545-559.
    • Choma, B.L., Hanoch, Y., Gummerum, M., & Hodson, G. (2013). Relations between risk perceptions and social-political ideology are domain- and ideology-dependent. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 29-34. 
    • MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2013). Is homophobia associated with an implicit same-sex attraction? Journal of Sex Research, 50, 777-785 . DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2012.690111
    • MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2012). Intergroup bias toward "Group X": Evidence of prejudice, dehumanization, avoidance, and discrimination against asexuals. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 15, 725-743. 
    • MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2012). "Where the rubber hits the road" en route to intergroup harmony: Examining contact intentions and contact behavior under meta-stereotype threat. British Journal of Social Psychology, 51, 363-373.
    • Hewstone, M., Swart, H., & Hodson, G. (2012). Of babies and bath-water, and rabbits and rabbit-holes: A plea for conflict-prevention, not conflict promotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35, 436-437.
    • Hodson, G., & Busseri, M.A. (2012). Bright minds and dark attitudes: Lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice through right-wing ideology and low intergroup contact. Psychological Science, 23, 187-195. [to purchase a copy, visit link]
    • Choma, B.L., Hodson, G., & Costello, K. (2012). Intergroup disgust sensitivity as a predictor of Islamophobia: The modulating effect of fear. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 499-506.
    • Bastian, B., Costello, K., Loughnan, S., & Hodson, G. (2012). When closing the human-animal divide explands moral concern: The importance of framing. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 421-429.
  • Hodson, G. (2011). Do ideologically intolerant people benefit from intergroup contact? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 154-159.
  • Costello, K., & Hodson, G. (2011). Social dominance-based threat reactions to immigrants in need of assistance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 220-231.
  • Hodson, G., Rush, J., & MacInnis, C.C. (2010). A joke is just a joke (except when it isn't): Cavalier humor beliefs facilitate the expression of group dominance motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 660-682.
  • Hodson, G., MacInnis, C.C., & Rush, J. (2010). Prejudice-relevant correlates of humor temperaments and humor styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 546-549.
  • Costello, K., & Hodson, G. (2010). Exploring the roots of dehumanization: The role of animal-human similarity in promoting immigrant humanization. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 13, 3-22.
  • Rice, D. R., Abrams, D., Badea, C., Bohner, G., Carnaghi, A., Dementi, L. I., Durkin, K., Ehmann, B., Hodson, G., Kokdemir, D., Masip, J., Moran, A., Oswald, M. E., Ouwerkerk, J. W., Reber R., Schroeder, J., Tasiopoulou, K., & Trzebinski, J. (2010). What did you just call me? European and American ratings of the valence of ethnophaulisms. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29, 117-131.
  • Hodson, G., Choma, B.L., & Costello, K (2009). Experiencing Alien-Nation: Effects of a simulation intervention on attitudes toward homosexuals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 974-978.
  • Hodson, G., Hogg, S.M., & MacInnis, C.C. (2009). The role of “dark personalities” (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy), Big Five personality factors, and ideology in explaining prejudice. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 686-690.
  • Hodson, G. (2009). The puzzling person-situation schism in prejudice research. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 247-248.
  • Hodson, G., Harry, H., & Mitchell, A. (2009). Independent benefits of contact and friendship on attitudes toward homosexuals among authoritarians and highly identified heterosexuals. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 509-525.
  • Hodson, G. (2008). Interracial prison contact: The pros for (socially dominant) cons. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 325-351.
  • Esses, V.M., Veenviet, S., Hodson, G., & Mihic, L. (2008). Justice, morality, and the dehumanization of refugees. Social Justice Research, 21, 4-25.
  • Hodson, G., & Costello, K. (2007). Interpersonal disgust, ideological orientations, and dehumanization as predictors of intergroup attitudes. Psychological Science, 18, 691-698.
  • Esses, V.M., & Hodson, G. (2006). The role of lay perceptions of ethnic prejudice in the maintenance and perpetuation of ethnic bias. Journal of Social Issues, 62, 453-468.
  • Hodson, G., Hooper, H., Dovidio, J.F., & Gaertner, S.L. (2005). Aversive racism in Britain: Legal decisions and the use of inadmissible evidence. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 437-448.
  • Hodson, G., & Olson, J.M. (2005). Testing the generality of the name letter effect: Name initials and everyday attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1099-1111.
  • Hodson, G., & Esses, V.M. (2005). Lay perceptions of ethnic prejudice: Causes, solutions, and individual differences. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 329-344.
  • Shuper, P.A., Sorrentino, R.M., Otsubo, Y., Hodson, G., & Walker, A.M. (2004). A theory of uncertainty orientation: Implications for the study of individual differences within and across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 460-480.
  • Capo-Bianco, S., Hodson, G., & Clark, D. (2004). Prejudice against drug users II: The enemy within. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 4(2), 19-20.
  • Palfreyman, L., Moore, N., Hodson, G., & Clark, D. (2004). Prejudice against heroin users. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 4(1), 22.
  • Hodson, G., Dovidio, J.F., & Esses, V.M. (2003). Ingroup identification as a moderator of positive-negative asymmetry in social discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 215-233.
  • Hodson, G., & Sorrentino, R.M. (2003). Uncertainty orientation in the group context: Categorization effects on persuasive message processing. Journal of Social Psychology, 143, 291-312.
  • Sorrentino, R.M., Smithson, M., Hodson, G., Roney, C.J.R., & Walker, A.M. (2003). The theory of uncertainty orientation: A mathematical reformulation. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 47, 132-149.
  • Hodson, G., Dovidio, J.F., & Gaertner, S.L. (2002). Processes in racial discrimination: Differential weighting of conflicting information. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 460-471.
  • Hodson, G., & Esses, V.M. (2002). Distancing oneself from negative attributes and the personal/group discrimination discrepancy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 500-507.
  • Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L., Kawakami, K., & Hodson, G. (2002). Why can’t we just get along? Interpersonal biases and interracial distrust. Cultural Diversity and Ethnicity Minority Psychology, 8, 88-102.
  •      Dovidio, Gaertner, Kawakami, & Hodson, 2002, republished in P.B. Gerstenfeld and D.R. Grant (Eds.) (2004). Crimes of Hate: Selected Readings (pp 130-143). Sage.
  • Esses, V.M., Dovidio, J.F., & Hodson, G. (2002). Public attitudes toward immigration in the United States and Canada in response to the September 11 2001 “Attack on America.” Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 69-85.
  • Hodson, G., Maio, G.R., & Esses, V.M. (2001). The role of attitudinal ambivalence in susceptibility to consensus information. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 23, 197-205.
  • Hodson, G., & Dovidio, J.F. (2001). Racial prejudice as a moderator of stereotype rebound: A conceptual replication. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 25, 1-8.
  • Hodson, G., & Sorrentino, R.M. (2001). Just who favors the in-group? Personality differences in reactions to uncertainty in the minimal group paradigm. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5, 92-101.
  • Hodson, G., & Sorrentino, R.M. (1999). Uncertainty orientation and the big five personality structure. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 253-261.
  • Hodson, G., & Sorrentino, R.M. (1997). Groupthink and uncertainty orientation: Personality differences in reactivity to the group situation. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 144-155.


Student (or former student) & Postdoc co-authors:

Postdoc: Kteily

Graduate student (advisor = Hodson): Costello, MacInnis, Hoffarth

Graduate student (research in Hodson lab): Choma, Adachi, Skorska, MacLean, Drolet

Undergraduate student (advisor = Hodson): Boisvert, Rush, Hooper, Mitchell, Harry, Dube


Notes on requesting papers

Please note that the copyright to most publications is owned by the journal or book publisher. There is a general understanding that academics can share publications with other academics and recognized journalists. If you fall into these categories please email me ( to arrange a copy to be sent to you. Otherwise please visit the journal/book website to learn how to purchase the papers directly from the publisher.