Uwe Brand

Department of Earth Sciences




Uwe Brand

Uwe Brand, PhD DFGAC PGeo

Professor and Chancellor's Chair for Research

Isotope Carbonate–hydrogeochemist interested in stable and radiogenic isotopes and their application to climate/environmental change in epeiric seas and oceans of the geologic past, and the evaluation of the ecologic health of modern watersheds

Biography

Career History

  • 1988–present: Professor of Earth Sciences; and Adjunct Professor, Department of Geology & Planetary Science, University of Pittsburgh; and during 2008–2010 Chancellor's Chair for Research Excellence (Brock University).
  • 1993–1999: Adjunct Professor, Department of Geology, University of Toronto.
  • 1989–2001: Professor (part-time), Department of Geology, McMaster University
  • 1983–1988: Associate Professor of Earth Sciences, Brock University
  • 1980–1983: Assistant Professor of Earth Sciences, Brock University
  • 1979–1980: NSERC Post-doctoral Fellow, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo

Awards and Distinctions

  • 2010. -, Editor-in-Chief, Chemical Geology
  • 2008. Brock University Chancellor's Research Chair.
  • 2004. Volunteer Work Award, House of Commons, A. Tirabassi, MP–Niagara Ctr
  • 2003. Volunteer Recognition Award, City of Welland, Welland B & C Dev. Corp.
  • 1999. Conservation Achievement Award, Niagara Pen. Conservation Authority
  • 1998. Conservation Achievement Award, Niagara Pen. Conservation Authority
  • 1995. Distinguished Fellow of the Geological Association of Canada
  • 1990. Past President's Medal of the Geological Association of Canada
  • 1980. Outstanding Paper Award, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists
  • 1979–1980. NSERC Post-doctoral Fellowship, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo

Qualifications

  • Professional Geoscientist (P.Geo.) Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario (APGO)
  • Ph.D. University of Ottawa
  • M.A. University of Missouri-Columbia
  • B.Sc. University of Waterloo

Teaching

  • ERSC 1F01 Planet Earth
  • ERSC 3P11 Carbonate Sedimentology
  • ERSC 3P31 Geochemistry
  • ERSC 4P31 Watershed Analysis

Research Interests

Specific short-term objectives are updates of the Mid-Carboniferous GSSP and the Devonian–Carboniferous GSSP, which should greatly enhance the chemocorrelation potential of other sections at comparable time levels such as Granite Mountain (part of the Great Basin), and other important boundary sections in Europe, Russia and China. Another objective, as part of the SCS Working Group is to provide chemostratigraphic information in identifying locales and sections as candidates for the Bashkirian–Moscovian and Morrowan–Atokan boundaries. Furthermore, all of these studies will pay particular attention to intra- & inter basinal differences/similarities, as well as to differences imposed on the biogeochemistry due to Biogeography and Provincialism (especially pertinent to the mid-lower Devonian of this project).

Part of the long-term objective is to work up the biochemostratigraphy of the Pennsylvanian System as exposed in Arrow Canyon. This section is unique for its singular and complete (almost 100%) exposure in the canyon walls, and most importantly it contains the Mid-Carboniferous GSSP and thus a reference point for sample placement, which should make it a serious contender/candidate for the global stratotype section for the Pennsylvanian System. The work on the Mississippian and Devonian intervals proposed in the project will concentrate on exposures in several locations and countries. Specifically, New York (Finger Lakes area), Nevada ( Cortez Range and Devils Gate) and China ( Guilin) possess suitable sections for the Devonian work. The novelty of this research is high temporal resolution biochemostratigraphy as the backdrop to identifying oceanographic, tectonic, climatic and biotic events at levels (spatial and temporal) rarely achieved in the past. Their direct/indirect impact(s) on the biosphere and atmosphere and their secular change and should provide new insights into the evolution of the Earth System.

Student Graduate Studies Projects

1. Biogeochemistry (chemistry and stable isotopes) of subtropical benthic foraminifera from Bermuda

2. Seasonal and environmental geochemistry of modern brachiopods from Ubatuba Bay, Brazil (diving skill is a prerequisite for this project)

3. Geochemistry of modern brachiopods from Arctic Canada; changes related to global climatic warming

4. Coral and molluscan diagenesis (isotopes and REE) of the Key Largo Formation, Windley Key, Florida

Student Supervision

  • Amir Zaky (PhD., supervisor)
  • Alex Beach (MSc., advisor)
  • Ashley Fifi (UG-thesis, advisor)

Publications

Research Articles (since 2005)

  • BRAND, U., JIANG, G., AZMY, K., BISHOP, J., MONTANEZ, I.P. 2012. Diagenetic evaluation of a Pennsylvanian carbonate succession (Bird Spring Formation, Arrow Canyon, Nevada, U.S.A.) - 1: brachiopod and whole rock comparison. Chemical Geology, 308-309, 26-30.
  • GARBELLI, C., ANGIOLINI, L., JADOUL, F., BRAND, U. 2012. Micromorphology and differential preservation of Upper Permian brachiopod low-Mg calcite. Chemical Geology, 298-299, 1-10.
  • BRAND, U., LOGAN, A., BITNER, M.A., GRIESSHABER, E., AZMY, K., BUHL, D. 2011. What is the ideal proxy of Palaeozoic seawater chemistry? Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 41, 9-24.
  • AZMY, K., BRAND, U., SYLVESTER, P., GLEESON, S.A., LOGAN, A., BITNER, M.A. 2011. Biogenic and abiogenic low-Mg calcite (bLMC and aLMC): evaluation of seawater-REE composition, water masses and carbonate diagenesis. Chemical Geology, 280, 180-190.   
  • BRAND, U., AZMY, K., TAZAWA, J.-I., SANO, H., BUHL, D. 2010. Hydrothermal diagenesis of Paleozoic seamount carbonate components. Chemical Geology, 278, 173-185.
  • BRAND, U., TAZAWA, J.-I., SANO, H., AZMY, K., LEE, X. 2009. Is mid-late Paleozoic ocean chemistry coupled with epeiric seawater isotope records? Geology, 37, 823–826.
  • GRIESSHABER, E., KELM, K., SEHRBROCK, A., SCHMAHL, W.W., MADER, W., MUTTERLOSE, J., BRAND, U. 2009. Amorphous calcium carbonate in the shell material of the brachiopod Megerlia truncata . European Journal of Mineralogy.
  • AZMY, K., POTY, E., BRAND, U. 2009. High-resolution isotope stratigraphy of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the Namur-Dinant Basin, Belgium. Sedimentary Geology, 216, 117–124.
  • McCARTHY, D.P., CRAIG, B., BRAND, U. 2009. Lichen monitoring of urban air quality, Hamilton, Ontario, Chapter 10. In: Relating Atmospheric Source Apportionment to Vegetation Effects: Establishing Cause and Effect Relationships. A.H. Legge (Ed). Developments in Environmental Science, 9, 243–262.
  • KORTE, C., JONES, P.J., BRAND, U., MERTMANN, D., VEIZER, J. 2008. Oxygen isotope values from high latitudes: clues for Permian sea-surface temperature gradients and Late Paleozoic deglaciation. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 269, 1–16.
  • GRIESSHABER, E., NEUSER, R.D., BRAND, U., SCHMAHL, W.W. 2008. Texture and microstructure of modern Rhynchonellide brachiopod shells – an onthogenetic study. Am. Ceramic Soc., 92, 722–734.
  • BRAND, U., WEBSTER, G.D., AZMY, K., LOGAN, A. 2007. Bathymetry and productivity of the southern Great Basin seaway, Nevada, U.S.A.: an evaluation of isotope and trace element chemistry in mid-Carboniferous and modern brachiopods. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 256, 273–297.
  • CAME, R.E., EILER, J.M., VEIZER, J., AZMY, K., BRAND, U., AND WEIDMAN, C.R., 2007. Coupling of surface temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the Palaeozoic era. Nature, 449, 198–201.
  • BRAND, U., WEBSTER, G.D., AZMY, K., and LOGAN, A. 2007. Bathymetry and productivity of the southern Great Basin seaway, Nevada, U.S.A.: an evaluation of isotope and trace element chemistry in mid-Carboniferous and modern brachiopods. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 256, 273–297.
  • GRIESSHABER, E., SCHMAHL, W.W., NEUSER, R.D., PETTKE, T., BLUM, M., MUTTERLOSE, J. and BRAND, U. 2007. Crystallographic texture and microstructure of terebratulide brachiopod shell calcite: an optimized materials design with hierarchical architecture. American Mineralogist, 92, 722–734.
  • MENZIES, J., and BRAND, U. 2007. The internal sediment architecture of a drumlin, Port Byron, New York State, USA. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 322–335.
  • BRAND, U., AZMY, K., and VEIZER, J. 2006. Evaluation of the Salinic I Tectonic, Cancañiri Glacial and Ireviken Biotic events: biochemostratigraphy of lower Silurian succession in the Niagara Gorge area, Canada and U.S.A. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 241, 192–213.
  • AZMY, K., VEIZER, J., JIN, J., COPPER, P., and BRAND, U. 2006. Paleobathymetry of a Silurian shelf based on brachiopod assemblages: an oxygen isotope test. Can. Jour. Earth Sci., 43, 281–293.
  • GAO, Y., BARGMANN, G., BRAND, U. and NOAKES, D.L.G. 2005 Stable isotopic and trace elemental compositions of otoliths and the stock structure of Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus . Environmental Biology of Fishes 74, 335–348.
  • GRIESSHABER, E., SCHMAHL, W., NEUSER, R., JOB, R., BLUEM, M., and BRAND, U. 2005. Microstructure of brachiopod shells – an inorganic/organic fibre composite with nanocrystalline protective layer. In: Katti, K., Ulm, F.J., Hellmich, C., Viney, C. (eds.): Mechanical properties of bio-inspired and biological materials. Material Research Science Sym. Proc. Ser., 844, 99–104.
  • BRAND, U ., and McCARTHY, F.M.G. 2005 The Allerød–Younger Dryas–Holocene sequence in the west-central Champlain Sea, eastern Ontario: a record of glacial, oceanographic, and climatic changes. Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 1463–1478.

Selected Older Publications

  • BRAND, U., LOGAN, A., HILLER, N., and RICHARDSON, J. 2003. Geochemistry of modern brachiopods: applications and implications for oceanography and paleoceanography. Chem. Geol. 198, 305–334. (cross-listed in Virtual Journal of Geobiology: 1B – Biota-Hydrosphere/Cryosphere Interactions, v. 2, issue 6, June 2003).
  • SMITH, P.E., BRAND, U., and FARQUHAR, R.M., 1994. U/Pb systematics and alteration trends of Pennsylvanian-aged aragonite and calcite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 313–322.
  • BRAND, U., 1991. Strontium isotope diagenesis of biogenic aragonite and low-Mg calcite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 55, 505–513.
  • Morrison, J.O., and Brand , U. 1986. Paleoscene #5. Geochemistry of Recent marine invertebrates. Geoscience Canada, 13, 237–254.
  • Brand, U., and Veizer, J. 1980. Chemical diagenesis of a multicomponent carbonate system-1: trace elements. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 50, 1219–1236.

Recent talks and published conference abstracts (since 2005)

  • BRAND, U., TAZAWA, J.-I., SANO, H., AZMY, K., LEE, X. 2009. Is mid-late Paleozoic ocean-water chemistry coupled with epeiric seawater isotope records? Goldschmidt Conference, Davos, SW, June 21-26, 2009, Abstracts vol., p. 155.
  • KORTE, C., BRAND, U., STRAUSS, H., VEIZER, J. 2009. Carbon-, sulphur-, and strontium-isotope trends of high- and low-latitude Permian brachiopods. Goldschmidt Conference, Davos, SW, June 21-26, 2009, Abstracts vol., p. 686.
  • CAME, R., BRAND, U., GUO, W., VEIZER, J., AZMY, K., EILER, J. 2008. Application of carbonate ‘clumped isotope’ thermometry to marine brachiopods from Icehouse and Greenhouse periods in the Paleozoic Era – preliminary results. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Abstracts Vol . 40, p. xxx, Houston, TX, Oct. 4-10, 2008.
  • BRAND, U., AZMY, K., JIANG, G.,  LEE, X. 2008. Global Taghanic and Givetian seawater records: an amelioration of faunal realms, climatic conditions and high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Abstracts Vol . 40, p. xxx, Houston, TX, Oct. 4-10, 2008.
  • BRAND, U., JIANG, G., AZMY, K., BUHL, D. 2007. Gondwanan superglaciation (Carboniferous) – Glacial II (GSG-II): Integration of strontium, oxygen and carbon isotope seawater records. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting,  GSA Abstracts vol .39, p. 355, Denver, CO Oct 27-Nov. 1, 2007.
  • BRAND, U., JIANG, G., PFEFFERKORN, H.W. 2007. Tropical cyclones and aquatic wetlands of the Late Chesterian Battleship Wash Formation (Great Basin, Arrow Canyon, Nevada). Geological Society of America Annual Meeting,  GSA Abstracts vol .39,,p.84, Denver, CO Oct 27-Nov. 1, 2007.
  • KORTE, C., BRAND, U., JONES, P.J., KOZUR, H.W., MERTMANN, D. and VEIZER, J. 2006. Oxygen isotope values from Permian brachiopods and bivalves: A record of deglaciation and latitudinal sea-surface temperature gradients. Carboniferous Conference (CCC). SEPM-CES, Cologne, Germany, Sept. 4-10, 2006.
  • BRAND, U., WEBSTER, G.D., AZMY, K., and LOGAN, A. 2006. Bathymetry and productivity of the southern Great Basin seaway, Nevada, U.S.A.: an evaluation of isotope and trace element chemistry in modern and mid-Carboniferous brachiopods. Geol. Assoc. Canada Annual Conference. Book of Abstracts, Montreal, Quebec, May 14 - 17, 2006 (INVITED KEYNOTE ADDRESS), p. A19.
  • BRAND, U., and JIANG, G. 2006. In situ or tsunami deposits within the Mississippian Great Basin seaway: a petrographic and chemical investigation of the fauna and flora of the Indian Springs-Battleship Wash Formations, Arrow Canyon, Nevada. Geol. Assoc. Canada Annual Conference. Book of Abstracts, Montreal, Quebec, May 14 - 17, 2006. p. A19.
  • GAO, Y.W., BARGMANN, G., BRAND, U., and NOAKES, D. 2006. Stable isotopic and trace elemental composition of Pacific cod in Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 14th Western Groundfish Conference. Abstract and Program, Newport, Oregon USA, January 30-February 3, 2006.
  • GRIESSHABER, E., KELM, K., KNIEPS, M., SCHMAHL, W.W., BRAND, U., MADER, W. 2005. The ultrastructure of brachiopod shells – a mechanically optimized material with hierarchical architecture. Material Research Symposium, Boston, Mass. USA,
  • SCHMAHL, W.W., GRIESSHABER, E., NEUSER, R.D., PETTKE, T., BRAND, U. 2005. Brachiopod shell biomineralization: structural and chemical characteristics. Goldschmidt Conference, Abstracts, A118, Moscow, Idaho, USA, May 19–25, 2005.
  • KORTE, C., BRAND, U., DICKINS, J.M., MERTMANN, D., VEIZER, J. 2005. Latitudinal gradient in  18O of Permian brachiopods. Goldschmidt Conference, Symposium S13, Abstracts vol. p. 7, Moscow, Idaho, May 20–25, 2005.
  • BRAND, U. 2005. Isotopes in Paleozoic carbonate components: an evaluation of proxies. Goldschmidt Conference, Symposium S13, Abstracts vol. p. 5, Moscow, Idaho, May 20–25, 2005.
  • McCARTHY, D.P., CRAIG, B., BRAND, U. 2005. Lichen monitoring of urban air quality, Hamilton, Ontario. 37 th Air Pollution Workshop and International Symposium, Banff, Alta, April 25–28, 2005.
  • LITTLE, M.L., McCARTHY, F.M.G., FINDLAY, D.J., BRAND, U. 2005. Dust in the wind – multiproxy studies of aridity and its geologic consequences. Geol. Prob. Solv. With microfossils, Rice Univ. March 2005.

Funding

  • NSERC
  • BUCCR

External activities

  • Councillor, Town of Pelham (since 1997)
  • Hydrogeochemist, CERTI Environmental Consultants
  • Associate Editor, Carbonates & Evaporites
  • Voting Member, Bashkirian–Moscovian/Morrowan–Atokan Boundary Working Group, Subcommission on Carboniferous Stratigraphy (International Commission on Stratigraphy, IUGS).
  • Grant Reviewer (NSERC, NSF, NERC)
  • Journal Publication Reviewer

International activities & collaborations

Voting Member, Bashkirian–Moscovian Boundary Working Group (ICS Subcommission on Carboniferous Stratigraphy) with international scientists: Alekseev, Altiner, Dzhenchuarva, Fissuenko, Fohrer, Groves (chair), Kulagina, Lambert, Nemyrovskaya, Nikolaeva, Pazuhkin, Poletaev, Samankassou, Turner, Ueno, Villa & Wang.

Work progresses with J.M. Dickins ( Canberra, formerly Australian Geological Survey; dec.) and C. Korte (Ruhr University–Bochum) and others on the chemostratigraphy project of the Australian Permian sequences from the Tasman, Bowen, Sidney, Carnarvon and Canning Basins.

E. Griesshaber, Schmahl, W., Neuser, R., Job, R., Pettke, T., van den Kerkhof, Veizer, J. (Ruhr Univ – Bochum; ETH Zürich, Göttingen Univ., Fern Univ.) are collaborators on a number of projects involving the chemistry, microstructures, fluid inclusions of modern and fossil brachiopods.

Project 1: deals with an investigation into the chemical homogeneity and composition of fluid inclusions in brachiopods (modern and fossil). The investigation uses high-resolution micro-Raman spectroscopic, microthermometric and laser inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometric analyses.

Project 2: Brachiopod shell calcite is being studied in detail to discern the microstructural configuration by EBSD (electron backscattering diffraction) and PIXE (proton induced x-ray emission). The architecture of inorganic biomaterials is of interest in prototype design of optimized materials, and may lead to new fabrication techniques.

Work continues with Y. Gao ( Washington State) studying the trace element and stable isotope chemistry of several Pacific fish stocks to determine ecologic health and migration patterns.