The Study of Sociology in Institutions of Learning in the United States
Frank L. Tolman
University of Chicago
SUMMING up the results on the present study of sociology, we find that 169 different men's colleges give some attention to sociology, while 150 of these give the equivalent of one course or more in the subject. In the women's colleges, 16 treat sociology. A total of 45 colleges and universities give fairly adequate treatment of the subject, offering three or more different courses covering various subdivisions of the sociological field. There is, however, no university in the United States in which the whole field of sociology is adequately covered. The nearest approach to such treatment is at the University of Chicago, Yale University, and Columbia University. Besides the institutions mentioned above, sociology is gradually making its way into technological institutions, normal schools, and theological institutions. The growth of such study in normal schools is most marked, while theological institutions are not making as rapid progress as seemed probable a few years ago. The technical colleges are just awakening to the advisability of treating a subject apparently so remote from a purely technical curriculum.
Our only basis of comparison, in determining the growth of sociological study, is Mr. Folkmar's report of 1894. He found "29 colleges having regular courses in sociology, using the term in the looser sense to include charities and corrections, while 24 have sociology proper, defining the term as the study of society. These figures do not include the institutions that give instruction in charities and correction, or the science of society, incidentally to ethics, economics, etc. Of this sort there are б more in sociology, and 20 in charities and correction, some of which give quite extended instruction in these subjects. Five of the 8 women's colleges reporting give courses in sociology, some of them being well equipped, while 4 have courses in charities and correction. Eleven colleges give the number of students, which ranges from 8 to 250 in each course, or an average of 50. The
(86) number of students in courses in charities and correction ranges from 8 to 1 19, with an average of 43."
The growth shown by a comparison of these figures is so evident that no comment is necessary. Since 1890 the field of sociology has differentiated, until the division into sociology proper, and charities and corrections, has no longer any significance. Consequences of this differentiation are that the classes are notably smaller ; that dilettanteism and superficiality in sociological study are beginning to be things of the past ; that a single course in the study is seen to be inadequate to cover the sociological field ; and that a postgraduate school of sociology is coming to be recognized as the only adequate institution for such study.
While the growth of sociology is obvious, it would be idle to deny that certain tendencies are at work which tend to challenge its right to an important position in the field of the sciences, or in educational institutions. The action of certain of our most important universities, as noticed in the first part of this paper, is evidence enough of this movement. The arguments of such critics may, perhaps, be stated somewhat as follows : Sociology must define itself either as a body of doctrine, as a point of view, or as a method of research. It has tried to define itself as a body of doctrine, and it has failed in the attempt. If it is merely a point of view, it cannot be separated from the matter in discussion and must subordinate itself to the various social sciences. It has as yet made no serious attempt to develop itself as a method of research, and must develop itself on these lines and show its fruitfulness before it can demand consideration at the bar of science. It is no part of the business of this paper to answer these charges theoretically. If an examination of the classified list of sociological courses shows them to be well founded, then there is nothing to say, unless, indeed, it be to advise the sociologist to develop sociology as a method of research as rapidly as possible. My purpose in calling attention to this tendency is merely to give a true representation of the present status of sociology in the academic world. No treatment of this subject would be complete which minimized this attitude.
It seems evident, then, that the position of sociology in education is in dispute. In this connection a few of the answers to the question as to the position of sociology in general education may be of interest:
I do not believe that sociology is at present far enough advanced to warrant much specialization apart for the actual workings of social institutions, and such general courses as enable the student to appreciate current problems as he comes upon them.
Seems to the writer too vast a field for a mere course in college. Should be a postgraduate course, with little else in it.
Has not yet attained sufficient definiteness as a " body of doctrine " to be insisted upon as part of a general education. But every teacher should appreciate the sociological point of view.
A better knowledge of what it is will create a demand equal with political economy. There is a growing demand to know the civilization in which one has to live. Perhaps no branch has a higher importance.
We find deep interest in it, and believe it should be put in curriculum for B.L., B.Ph., and B.A. Let student select it as alternate to any one of several studies, as higher mathematics, Greek, philosophy, etc.
I think an elementary study of the subject almost indispensable to right understanding of a number of other subjects.
Sociology organizes and furnishes point of view for all human sciences. A general survey is well-nigh essential.
It seems to me it should be applied rather than theoretical, and has the utmost importance — nothing is more important.
Because of the paramount importance of the social life, I would cut down the studies of the classics, and of physical science if necessary, in order to make room for it.
The study of sociology is invaluable. Demand is general and urgent. No subject is of greater importance.
Sociology has the importance Plato and Aristotle gave it. It connects other studies with life.
We note an imperative and increasing demand for teaching of sociology.
The following table is an attempt at a classification of the various sociological courses offered by colleges and universities. It is designed to indicate the relative development and comparative importance of the various divisions of the sociological field, as well as to show the comparative amount of attention given to each of these subjects in the academic world. It is hoped that it may also serve as an index to the first part of the larger descriptive catalogue to follow. This descriptive catalogue will consist of all the announcements and descriptions of courses in sociology that it has been possible to collect. They will be
(88) arranged in the usual way under the heads of (I) colleges for men and coeducational institutions, (2) colleges for women, (3) schools of technology, (4) divinity schools, and (5) normal schools. Of these various classes, the last two do not pretend to anything like completeness. It is hoped, however, that enough is given to be representative of the best treatment of sociology in these institutions.
CATALOGUE OF COURSES IN SOCIOLOGY.
UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA.
Sociology is taught incidentally in connection with the work in history, political science, and pedagogy. It is probable that courses in sociology will be offered as soon as the number of students demands it. Professor Adams.
OUACHITA MALE AND FEMALE COLLEGE.
No sociology taught until 1901. Nothing taught now except Small and Vincent's Introduction to the Study of Society. Three hours a week for five months. Twenty-five students. Professor Carter.
Just an introductory course of three months, three times a week. Professor Reynolds.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
HISTORY AND POLITICAL SCIENCE.
51. Introduction to economics. Assistant Professor Page and Mr. Hutchinson. A study of the elementary laws of economics as illustrated in the growth of industry and commerce ; the influence of economic conditions on social and political development. Three hours, either half-yeaг. -
б1. Social and constitutional history of Greece. Dr. Ferguson. A consideration of the Greek intelligence as it is manifested in institutions, with special relation to its contributions to western civilization. Three hours, first half-year.
73. The United States under the constitution, 1783-1850. Dr. Wakeman. With special emphasis on the constitutional and social development. Three hours, second half-year.
74. Local government and administration, with special reference to municipal problems. Assistant Professor Babcock. Three hours, first half-year.
75. Economic and social history of the English colonies in America, 1607-1776. Assistant Professor Page. Two hours, first half-year.
85. France under the Bourbons. Professor Bacon. A study of the social and
(105) political condition of France from the accession of Henry IV. to the fall of the monarchy. Two hours, second half-year.
88. Theories of social progress. Professor Moses. A critical examination of the theories hitherto offered to explain the forces, methods, and aims of social progress. Two hours, first half-year.
94. History of eastern Christendom. Professor Bacon. A critical study of the political, social, and religious institutions of the eastern Christian nations. Two hours, throughout the year.
98. Economic condition of laborers in England. Professor Moses. A historical and critical view of trade unions, economic legislation, and industrial progress, and their effects on the welfare of laborers. Two hours, first half-year.
2. Sociology. The development of society, its functions, institutions, and forces at work. Forty-eight hours.
3. Economic and social history. A study of a few of the economic and social problems of the day, an attempt to trace their history, and a discussion of their treatment. Forty-eight hours.
LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR
ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY.
б. Socialism. Readings from the socialists and critical examinations of their proposals. Meaning and limits of the modern extension of the state activities. Two hours, second semester. Professor Aldrich.
8. Comparative condition of workingmen. Descriptive and statistical study of the social condition of workingmen in England, France, Germany, Australia, and more especially in the United States. Critical examination, in the light of experience and of economic theory, of the various attempts to improve the condition of workingmen. Workingmen's insurance and the trade-union movement in the United States receive special attention. Three hours, both semesters. Professor Aldrich.
14. The sociology of the family. The historical development and conditions of the modern family. Lectures, one required paper, and assigned reading. Two hours, first semester. Professor M. R. Smith.
15. Race problems. A historical, sociological, and statistical study of the negro, Indian, and Chinese elements in the population. Lectures, assigned reading, and reports. Two hours, second semester. Professor M. R. Smith.
16. Statistics and sociology. Vital and social statistics, with special reference to method. Lectures, demonstrations, charting, and handling of statistics by students. Not open to first-year students. Two hours, second semester. Professor M. R. Smith.
17. Causes of poverty. A study of abnormal conditions, the social ,causes and effects of degeneration, vice, and pauperism. Lectures, assigned reading, and reports. Open to students who have had nine hours' work in the department. (Alternate with Course 19.) Three hours, first semester. Professor M. R. Smith.
18. Charities. Supplementary to Course 17. Lectures and assigned reading. Visits to the charitable institutions of the state by the class, and a detailed study of one institution by each student. Open to students who have had twelve hours in the
(106) department, including Course 17. (Alternate with Course 20.) Three hours, second semester. Professor M. R. Smith.
19. Criminology. The anthropology of the criminal, and the causes and conditions of crime. Lectures and assigned reading. Open to students who have had nine hours' work in the department. (Alternate with Course 17.) Three hours, first semester. Professor M. R. Smith.
20. Penology. Supplementary to Course 19. Methods of treating criminals ; police, police stations and courts, county jails, state prisons, penitentiaries, and reformatories. Lectures, reading, visitation and study of penal institutions. Open to students who have had twelve hours in the department, including Course 19. (Alternate with Course 18.) Three hours, second semester. Professor M. R. Smith.
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN
HISTORY AND ECONOMICS.
Point of view of the courses in history: History is an account of ideas and institutions in movement, rather than an account of personalities and events. Ideas are thoughtful experience embodied in definitions or in documents; they change in form and content as experience varies under different conditions. Personalities are the agents who exploit ideas. Events are reactions among ideas and personalities. Institutions are ideas formulated in practice to serve the purposes of human being. Civilization is the sum total of ideas and institutions which exist at any given period of time upon any given portion of the earth—i. e., civilization is the evolution of ideas and institutions.
Point of view of the course in economics : The science of economics inquires into the sources and nature of wealth, and the relations which it sustains to individual, social, civil, and national well-being. This science investigates the principles and laws that are evolved by industrial, commercial, and social conditions. Political economy discusses the inventions and forms which human energies put forth to subordinate and utilize the forces of nature in order that they may see the needs, comforts, and luxuries of society.
VI. Seminary of political and social science. (Round table.) This course purposes to discuss special problems that measure civil, political, and sociological conditions — problems which arise out of movements and reactions among the elements of civilization. Elective for those college students who are prepared to enter upon the course. One hour, throughout the year.
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO.
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION.
PROFESSOR DR. CHARLES E. CHADSEY.
16. Evolution of society. One semester, two hours. Application of theory of evolution to society. A study of the conditions that have made modern institutions possible. The causal idea in history. The family. Primitive law. Evolution of political institutions.
DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY.
PROFESSOR DR. JAMES M. WILSON.
7, 8. Applied ethics. One year, one hour.
Discussions and supplementary lectures. Two courses given in alternate year.
I. Kidd, Social Evolution; Lecky, History of European Morals; Warner, American Charities.
II. Wright, Practical Sociology; Hoffmann, American Negro; Wine, Punishment and Reformation.
The problems of social morality, charities, criminology, good citizenship, socialism, etc.
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AND POLITICAL SCIENCE.
Outlines of sociology. One semester, three hours. Lectures, reading, discussion. The course aims to present a brief outline of sociological thought; a discussion of the elements of association underlying social relations and institutions ; the results of race, group, and individual competition; the conditions of progress ; some of the chief problems of sociology—population, degeneration, pauperism, dependent classes, crime, immigration, divorce, great cities, education. Elective, senior year.
DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY.
Ethical seminary, one hour. (a) Modern social and sociological problems. Seminary in social ethics. The labor question, temperance, pauperism, and other social problems considered from the ethical standpoint. Second half-year, one hour.
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS.
B. Charities and crime. The theory and history of charity and reformatory work. Students are encouraged to study the charitable and correctional institutions in the vicinity of their own homes. If possible, additional lectures by men who have devoted special attention to some phase of these subjects. (Warner, American Charities.)
E. Economic colonial policy.
UNIVERSITY OF DENVER.
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY.
B. Psychology in relation to sociology, ethics, and the sciences. This course treats instinct, impulse, pain and pleasure, and the social mind as factors in social and ethical development; also the biological foundation of psychology. Thirty-six hours.
ILIFF SCHOOL OF THEOLOGY.
(1900) Church polity and sociology. Forty-eight hours.
PROFESSOR FERGUSON AND MR. WATKINS.
Ec. 3 (VI). Elective for seniors in 1900-1901. Practical economic and social problems: immigration ; legislative treatment of certain moral problems; relation between labor and capital; control of natural and capitalistic monopolies; crime and pauperism ; discussion of criticisms of the present economic and social order. The work will be based upon Wright's Outline of Practical Sociology, but will include much supplementary reading. Reports upon reading and two written theses will be required.
Ec. 3a (VI). Elective for seniors in 1901-2. Sociology: The purpose and scope of the study. The nature of society. The races of men. The Lamarckian and Weismann theories of heredity. Social effects of charity and modern sanitation. Progress by selection and by imitation. History of institutions. Some notable individual theories of social evolution. Four written theses will be required.
ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE.
V. The general labor problem. A course of lectures on the nature, causes, and justification of the present social discontent, and on such suggested remedies as moral elevation, charity, education, provident institutions, labor organizations, strikes, conciliation and arbitration, labor legislation, improved wage systems, profit-sharing, co-operation, nationalization of the land, socialism, communism, anarchism.
Course V is elective for those who have taken Course I. Courses IV and V are given in alternate years, Course IV being omitted the present year.
VI. Sociology. A discussion of the fundamental principles of social organization, and the conditions and forms of social progress.
Course VI is elective for those who take, or have taken, Course I.
[VII. Social science. An examination of certain concrete social problems of the present : pauperism and charity; the defective and criminal classes. The classroom work is supplemented by visits to several of the charitable, penal, and reformatory institutions in and about Middletown. Twice a week.]
Course VII is elective for those who take, or have taken, Course I. Courses VI and VII are given in alternate years, Course VII being omitted the present year.
*VIII. Economic seminary. Each member of the seminary takes for private individual investigation, under the direction of the instructor, some problem in economics, finance, statistics, or social science, and week by week reports in class on progress made and obstacles met. At the close of the year the work is brought together in a final report or thesis.
Course VIII is elective, with the permission of the instructor, for those who, having received first or second grade in Course I, take any three of the Courses III–V1I.
THE SOCIAL SCIENCES.
2. The self-perpetuation of society (sec. 2 of systematic societology). A historical and ethnological study of the evolution of the marriage institution; mores, taboo, idealization. The family; its forms, parenthood, kinship, status of woman. Comparative legislation on domestic relations. Population. The history, law, and policy of population. Seventy-two hours.
The mental reactions (sec. 4a of systematic societology). An ethnological study of the development of the mental processes and of the mental outfit of the human race in the earlier stages. Ghost-fear, daimonism, otherworldliness, knowledge and pseudo-knowledge, the aleatory element, world-philosophy, mores, codes, taboo, therapeutics, etc. Seventy-two hours.
4. The beginnings of the industrial organization. An ethnological study of the industrial organization from its earliest beginnings. Division of labor between the
(109) sexes, and the special functions of each ; regulation of industry; slavery; formation of capital; discoveries and inventions; domestication of animals and plants; money, etc. Seventy-two hours.
5. The science of society. An elementary course, with text-book lessons and examination in anthropology and ethnology, with the origin of civilization, and the development of institutions. In connection with this there will be a course of lectures on systematic sociology (societology). Topics are : the organization of society; the individual and the social; social forces; militarism and industrialism; property; family and the status of women; primitive notions in religion and philosophy; civil government ; law and rights ; slavery and classes ; economic interests and their collisions ; conditions of welfare; origin of moral standards ; reaction of reason on experience. These topics are treated exclusively in the light of historical anthropology and ethnology.
6. The science of society. A course based on Lippert's Kulturgeschichte. Seventy-two hours.
6a. Statistical study of the evolution of man. Statistical methods for handling the data of the somatic evolution of man. Special references will be made to the problems under variation, heredity, panmixia, regression, selection, and prepotency, with some passing notice of the practical applications in life insurance. Concrete cases will be studied at every point to illustrate the general principles. The methods of Pierson and Yale, and to a less extent of Galton, will be discussed. Seventy-two hours.
8. Social politics. A critical and historical study of legislation designed to better the conditions of the weaker members of society, considered in its relation to self-help and voluntary activity. Seventy-two hours.
9. The modern organization of labor. These lectures treat of the historical antecedents and the development during the nineteenth century of associations of the wage-receivers. They therefore include an account of the structure, aims, and methods of such societies in different countries, together with a discussion of their relations to socialism, the factory system, labor disputes, labor legislation, workingmen's insurance, provision for the unemployed, and other features of the industrial world. Forty-six hours.
DR. W. B. BAILEY.
23. Elementary statistics. The sources and reliability of statistical data are discussed and the methods of distinguishing true and false inferences are pointed out. Index numbers are studied, and the lectures treat of the statistics of population, crime, suicide, property, etc. The attempt is made to determine the laws which govern the group-actions of men. Seventy-two hours.
24. American social conditions. A critical study of the principal phenomena which are characteristic of American society. The course will deal with the problems connected with the negro, concentration of population in cities, with the attendant dangers, immigration, poor-relief, labor organizations, liquor question, etc. Seventy-two hours.
25. Labor systems. The various theories concerning the payment of labor, the conflicts between capital and labor, strikes, lock-outs, co-operation, compulsory insurance, and the various plans for the amelioration of the workingman. Each
(110) member of the class will make a special investigation of an assigned topic. Thirty-six hours.
26. The economic systems of classical antiquity. A critical study is made of the political and social institutions of Greece and Rome. The lectures treat of the income land expenditure of the state, the currency, credit instruments, poor-relief, slavery and tenure, commerce, trade regulations, marriage institutions, etc. Thirty-six hours.,
28. Municipal politics. A study of the organization of the modern municipality its practical workings and its problems ; its relation to the state, to the individual, and to industrial activity. In connection with the general treatment of the subject a special study will be made of the organization, administration, and working of typical municipalities, both American and European. Seventy-two hours.
29. Industrial combinations. A study of the modern tendency toward the concentration of interests in trade, transportation, and industry; the forms of industrial organization ; the relation of aggregated capital to investors, wage-earners, competitors, and consumers ; the various plans for regulating and controlling capitalistic monopolies. Lectures, readings, and the preparation of theses on the development of characteristic combinations. Seventy-two hours.
29a. Industrial policy. A historical and critical study of the state in its relation to industrial activity. The experience of modern states in the regulation, control, and operation of industry, together with an investigation of the results of municipal ownership of public utilities. Seventy-two hours.
30. Social philosophy. The principal sociological writers are classified in "schools," and their points of view and methods are compared and contrasted; (a) contractual (Rousseau); (b) positivist (Comte); (c) evolutionary (Herbert Spencer, Drummond); (d) biological (Schaffle, Worms); (e) psychological (Tarde, Le Bon, Simmel, Giddings, Baldwin, Izoulet); (f) group-wise, observational statistical (Gumplowicz, Le Play, Quetelet); (g) theocratic (Old Testament); (h) Christian. Thirty-six hours.
30a. Practical sociology. This course includes the following topics : the four fundamental and perduring social institutions — family, church, state, and property; the negro ; the immigrant ; the city; the wage and factory system ; and the defective, dependentvivíous, and criminal classes (charities and corrections). The lectures are supplemented, and book reviews by the students. A visit of two or three days to the charity and correctional institutions of New York, for which careful preparation is made in advance, and which furnishes topics and illustrations for subsequent discussions ín the class-room, will probably be made, as heretofore. Seventy-two hours.
Sob. Anarchism, socialism, and communism. This course is a study of definitions, historical developments, principles, and programs. Books, pamphlets, manifestoes, and party platforms are read, as far as possible in the original language, and reported upon for the discussion before the class. Special attention will be paid to anarchism this year. Thirty-six hours.
Soc. Social ideals in modern English poetry. Dowden's French Revolution and English Literature and Scudder's Social Ideals in English Letters will be read as text-books, and portions of Coleridge, Wordsworth, Shelley, Byron, Burns, Tennyson, Browning, Lowell, and Whitman will be read and discussed. Thirty-six hours.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR GREGORY AND DR. KELLOR.
31. Environmental influence on man. First term (Dr. Gregory): the relation of man to nature; a study of topography, climate, distribution and character of fauna, flora, building material, etc., as factors which influence man's physical development and manner of life. Second term (Dr. Kellor): social environment, including the interrelation of primitive and early societies, and of societies unequally advanced in civilization. Especial attention will be given to the contact of civilized with uncivilized races consequent to national expansion and colonization. Seventy-two hours.
33. Colonization (economic and social). The economic and social questions of colonization. A preliminary sketch of ancient and medíæval expansion and colonization, followed by a close study of the experiences of the various modern colonizing states. Investigation based on German and French sources is required, and ability to read Spanish or Dutch will be of advantage. Seventy-two hours.
YALE DIVINITY SCHOOL.
DEPARTMENT OF CHRISTIAN SOCIOLOGY.
Practical sociology. A critical study of the principal social phenomena that are characteristic of American society. The problems connected with the negro, the concentration of population in cities, with the attendant dangers, immigration, organizations for charity and the relief of the poor, the liquor question, and kindred themes will be presented in lectures. Considerable attention will be given to the institutions for the punishment of crime and the reformation of criminals. Wright's Practical Sociology and additional books of reference. Seventy-two hours.
"The Lyman Beecher Course for Igor," by Rev. Dr. Gladden, will discuss special problems connected with the relation of the pulpit to present social conditions.
Further needs of students in this department are met by the courses of the Graduate School.
A number of general scholarships, averaging $100 a year, are given to students engaged in practical religious and social work in the city. The supervision of this work is in charge of the director of religious work, a recent graduate employed solely for this purpose.
New Haven, with its population of 120,000, offers a large and varied clinical field. It contains seventeen Congregational churches and strong churches of all denominations. The mission field includes the well-organized city missions, Wellcome Hall Mission, with its institutional features ; Lowell House Settlement, in the midst of a large foreign population; the New Haven Hospital, where six students are used as chaplains; the jail, where work is done for discharged men in connection with the Calvary Industrial Home; the almshouse, clubs for street boys and workingmen, and the large city Y. M. C. A. This system affords excellent opportunity for actual experience in dealing with social problems, and is supplemented by a visit of two or three days to the charitable and correctional institutions of New York under Dr. Bailey's direction.
YALE LAW SCHOOL.
Group 1 1/4. The organization and working of human society.
1 1/4. Sociology: the self-perpetuation of society; evolution of domestic relations. Professor Sumner.
2. Systematic sociology. Professor Sumner.
З. Physical geography in its relation to history. Professor Brewer.
4. Mediaeval institutions. Professor G. B. Adams.
5. Social politics. Professor Farnam.
б. Commercial policy. Professor Emery.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA—
THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES.
In the university the departments of sociology, economics, and politics have been grouped into the School of Social Sciences, the better to enable the candidates for the doctorate to grasp the general principles underlying all social phenomena, and to form thereby a juster appreciation of the laws of the particular science to which he devotes himself. This end is obtained by such an arrangement of the courses as will enable the student to make the best possible co-ordination of the sciences taught in this school with each other and with the allied science of law as taught in the School of Law.
This grouping renders it easier to make such a co-ordination of courses as will offer the greatest advantages to students taking work in the other schools of the university, and who desire, at the same time, to secure a good grasp of the general principles of the social sciences.
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY.
REV. DR. WILLIAM J. KERBY.
At present the work in sociology is largely introductory. While the science is in the formative stage, and is the occasion of much controversy, it seems best to give to the student clear fundamental ideas and exact preparatory knowledge. It is hoped that this method will develop powers of accurate observation and classification, and that it will generate a correct sociological sense. Sociological theory is studied historically rather than critically. The lectures and research work are conducted in a way to reach questions of social organization and life, social history and social problems. To preserve the useful character of the work, principles will not be studied without careful and detailed application to social conditions, normal and abnormal ; and to preserve the scientific character of the courses, no sociological research, no study of social problems, will be undertaken, without the constant guidance of the principles involved.
COURSES OF INSTRUCTION.
I. Elements of sociology. The purpose of this course is to acquaint the student thoroughly with the terminology of the science, its fundamental concepts, the nature of society, of social phenomena, of social laws, and of social institutions, classes, etc. Two hours.
II. The social sciences. (a) Analytical study of their problems and relations to sociology. (b) Review of attempts to construct a complete theory of sociology. Two hours per week till completed.
III. The sociological aspects of mediæval guilds. Two hours per week after the completion of Course II.
IV. Seminar. Hints on methods of sociological study and observation ; papers by students on selected subjects; current periodical literature and current events reviewed ; exercise in bibliography. Two hours.
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS.
DR. CARROLL D. WRIGHT AND DR. CHARLES P. NEILL.
V. Lectures on special topics in social economics. This course, conducted by Hon. Carroll D. Wright, United States Commissioner of Labor, treats of the use and method of statistics in the study of industrial and social questions, and discusses problems of present importance in the field of social economics. One hour. Second half-year.
The resignation of Professor Carroll D. Wright, on account of the present financial difficulties of the university, has just been announced in the press.
THE CORCORAN SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL.
POLITICS AND ECONOMICS.
PROFESSOR CRAVEN, HEAD OF DEPARTMENT; DR. WRIGHT, LECTURER ON STATISTICS;
MR. MCNABB, INSTRUCTOR IN BUSINESS LAW.
VI. Comparative statistics. A numerical study of social relations, with particular regard to the population, industries, and commerce of the United States and other leading nations. Two hours, 1901-1902.
XL The principles of sociology. Two hours, 1900-1901.
XII. A study of individualism, socialism, and of the practical social problems of state and municipal administration in respect to sanitation, charities, crime, etc. Two hours, 1901-1902.
THE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES.
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR WEST.
III. Municipal economy. A study of municipal functions in various countries and of the corresponding forms of municipal government. The actual experiences of cities in dealing with the problems growing out of the concentration of population will be compared, with a view to determining how far and in what directions the modern tendency toward the extension of municipal activities is advantageous.
IV. Social therapeutics. A study of voluntary agencies for promoting social welfare.
Course 3. Special ethics. Duties and rights. Individual law. Revelation. Public worship. Self-culture and station in life. Suicide. Private ownership. Dueling. Lying. Social law. Domestic society. Divorce. Celibacy. Education. Civil society. Authority.
Politics. Forms of government. Essential functions : legislative, judiciary, executive. Armed force. Civil administration. Penal code. Church and state. Ecclesiastical society. International law. Intervention. War and peace.
Course 4. Distribution. The social problem. Socialist solution. . Rights of property. Classes of sharers : autonomous producer, master, wage-earner, man living on his income, the indigent.
JOHN B. STETSON
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS.
I. Introduction to the study of society. Small and Vincent's Introduction to the Study of Society forms the basis of instruction, and the course is designed to afford a synthetic view of social phenomena. It is a fitting introduction to the special social sciences.
II. Social elements —lecture course. The attempt is to direct attention to the phenomena of human associations, to show how to interpret social and economic tendencies and movements, to stimulate interest in methods of social betterment approved by experience, and to disclose the principles of social progress.
III. The history of sociology. This consists of a general survey of sociological thought from Comte to the present time by means of lectures, and reports by the students.
ECONOMICS AND LAW.
Course V. Sociology. An introductory course, dealing with the history of sociology as a science. Some of the subjects treated are anthropology, ethnology, the philosophy of social life, applied sociology, statistics, and present social problems. Second semester, three times a week. Required of all candidates for the degree.
W. E. BURGHA DuBOIS, Pн.D.
Social reforms. Three terms of the senior year are given to sociology; the first term to a general study of principles, the second term to a general survey of social conditions, and a third term to a study of the social and economic condition of the American negro, and to methods of reform. Mayo-Smith's Statistics and Sociology is the text-book in use, and special library and thesis work is required.
In addition to this, graduate study of the social problems in the South by the most approved scientific methods is carried on by the Atlanta Conference, composed of graduates of Atlanta, Fisk, and other institutions. The aim is to make Atlanta University the center of an intelligent and thoroughgoing study of the negro problems. Five reports of the conference have been published, and a sixth is in preparation.
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS.
II. Principles of sociology; sociological problems. Sixty hours.
GROUP H. ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY.
General history, civics, logic. Economics. Spring term. Course I. Economics. Fall term.
General history, civics, logic. Sociology. Spring term. Course 1, 3. Sociology. Fall term.
Courses I, 3, 4. Sociology, seminary. Winter term.
The purpose in sociology is to trace the evolution of society from its primitive forms to its present state of complexity, to note the reciprocal adjustment of life and
(115) environment, to see how forces both subjective and objective have operated to bring about a normal state of society, and to examine the forces which are now tending to change its structure.
An elementary study of social principles and phenomena (i). Origin and scope of sociology. Origin and nature of social structures. Social functions. Mental and physical basis of society. Constant observation and classification of local social phenomena. By this method and historical data social theory is tested.
The principles of sociology (2). Relation of sociology to correlated sciences. An examination of the nature and application of all the principles constituting society. These principles are traced in the evolution, not only of the social mind, but also of the objective structures of society. Theses on various phases of the subject.
Seminary (3). A study of such sociological problems as organized charity, socialism, communism, crime, urban life and social selection, negro, immigrant, sociological study of the family, social teaching and the influence of Christianity.
POLITICAL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT.
WALTER H. BRADLEY, A.M.
Discussion of the phenomena of society and present social problems. Thirty-six hours.
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY, ECONOMICS, AND SOCIAL SCIENCE.
Sociology. Wright's Practical Sociology. Theses and supplementary reading. Three months, three hours.
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS.
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS.
12. The labor problem. This course is a study of the labor movement and its social significance. The conditions of workingmen, their legal and economic relations to their employers, wages, strikes, arbitration, labor organizations, and similar topics are studied, and serve to show the general character of the course. Readings, lectures, and quizzes. Professor Kínley.
15. Problems of pauperism and crime. This course begins with the history of poor-relief in Europe and the United States. As full a discussion of the various methods of reform and prevention is given as the time will permit. Assistant Professor Hammond.
57. Sociology. This course comprises an elementary presentation of social principles and phenomena, and a brief discussion of some of the recent theories advanced to explain the growth and structure of society. Assistant Professor Hammond.
UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO.
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY.
Prevalent misconceptions make it necessary to advise students that sociology is neither the sum of modern experiments in beneficence, nor the formulation of benevolent sentiments, nor a dogmatic short-cut to the solution of problems which baffle political and economic science.
Sociology ís, first, a philosophy, that is, a correlation of the methods and results of the special social sciences ; second, an application of social philosophy to concrete problems. Social philosophy is invalid, unless it is chiefly constructed from data authenticated by the antecedent sciences. Social programs, whether for society in general or for minor social endeavor, are without scientific credentials unless they are indorsed by social philosophy thus derived.
The Department of Sociology has, accordingly, the following special aims: (I) to furnish such expositions of social relations and theories as will serve the general purposes of educated citizens ; (2) to train teachers for similar work of general exposition in colleges ; (з) to furnish professional equipment for other vocations devoted to social service, including the offices of public instruction through pulpit, platform, press, and the work of organizing enterprises for social improvement ; (4) to unite in the seminars companies of advanced students capable of the most comprehensive thought upon social philosophy, and to enlist them in co-operation for first-rate contribution to social doctrine. To this end fellowships are assigned to specially competent students of sociology.
FACILITIES FOR STUDY.
The facilities for sociological study at the University of Chicago are unsurpassed. The differentiation of departments devoted to social phenomena and the division of labor within the departments is nowhere more distinct and minute. The city of Chicago is one of the most complete social laboratories in the world. While the elements of sociology may be studied in smaller communities, and while it may be an advantage to beginners in the method of positive sociology to deal at first with more simple social combinations, the most serious problems of modern society are presented by the great cities, and must be studied as they are encountered in concrete form in large populations. No city in the world presents a wider variety of typical social problems than Chicago.
The instructors in the Department of Sociology aim to use the scientific material thus afforded both for didactic and constructive purposes. They find a large proportion of their opportunities for research in co-operation with the public-spirited men and women of the city. They are active members of many organizations of citizens for the purpose of investigating and shaping the life of Chicago. Graduate students in the department are taught to work among social facts, and to test and form theory by experience.
Thus the organized charities of the city afford graduate students of the university both employment and training. The church enterprises of the city enlist students in a similar manner. Several students of sociology have been residents and workers at Hull House. A social settlement upon the plan of Hull, House has been founded and maintained by students and instructors in the university. Social organizations of every description, from trades unions to the Civic Federation, afford illustrations of every type of modern social experiment and opportunity for the largest variety of observation and experience. Representatives of all these phases of social effort cordially co-operate with the Department of Sociology in making these social endeavors tributary to the training of sociological students. It is the purpose of this department to appropriate to the utmost every advantage afforded by the vast social laboratory within which the university is located. This purpose will be especially prominent in connection with the work of the social settlements. While the primary aim of these enterprises is improvement of the district in which they are undertaken,
(117) the settlements are social observing stations where invaluable supplementary experience should be sought by students, and where material is to be gathered by mature investigators. In so far as the work of the settlements is guided by the university, it will not stop with exhibitions of altruistic sentiments. It will attempt to test general hypotheses and to establish scientific conclusions by use of the evidence which actual experiment affords.
On the other hand, the breadth of the university itself makes empirical and provincial study of sociology impossible. The differentiation of departments does not imply isolation of thought. Scientific work in sociology largely depends upon logically antecedent sciences, not only for material, but for method. This dependence is recognized in the requirements specified below. More than this, it frequently occurs that the kind of research which is decisive in a particular sociological investigation is the more appropriate work of another department. Graduate work in sociology accordingly involves frequent resort to cognate departments.
The subjects in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology fall into the following groups: A, social philosophy; C, social psychology; D, social technology.
Candidates for the higher degrees, if otherwise qualified, may choose either of these groups as principal or secondary subject. The minimum amount of work accepted for the degree of A.M. is six majors, or for the secondary subject leading to the degree of Ph.D., nine majors.
If either of the above groups be chosen as the principal subject for the degree of Ph.D., the equivalent of eighteen majors within or under the direction of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology will be required.
The following table exhibits correlations of courses to be included in the work on which candidates for the higher degrees will be examined. Certain substitutions of equivalent work may be made by previous arrangement with the department.
|Group A||Group C||Group D.|
|For A. M.||Course 72
|For Ph D. (secondary)||Course 72
" 74 (or 94)
" 78 (or 95)
" 74 (or 94)
" 30 (or 27)
" 74 (or 94)
|For Ph D. (primary||Course 72
" 73 (or 98)
" 74 (or 94)
" 73 (or 98)
" 74 (or 94)
" 24 (or 28)
24. Art and the artist class. The relation of aesthetic activities to other forms of race activity and consciousness. Animal play and rudimentary expressions of art in animal
(118) societies. Mutilation, artificial deformation, stimulants, ornament, dress, tattooing, the dance, music, poetry, painting, sculpture, technology, ceremonial, humor, and play among the natural races. The relation of art to work. Art and gaming in Chicago. From the standpoint of origins. For graduate students. Major. Associate Professor Thomas.
26. Social origins. Association and culture in early times and in tribal life. Early food conditions, migrations, and race-crossings. Origins and relations of invention, trade, warfare, art, marriage, class distinctions, the professions, legal, political, and ecclesiastical institutions. Ethnological reading. An introductory. For Senior College and graduate students. Major. Associate Professor Thomas.
27. Development of mind in the race. Formation of habit in the tribal stage. Relation of the psychic life of the group to the group activities, Instruction and discipline of children by the parents and by the group. Educational meaning of initiation, secret societies, and tapu. Animistic beliefs and practices, and the influence of analogy, suggestion, and hypnotism in the formation of mind. Language and number. Imitation, invention, and genius. Comparison of the mental traits of different races, epochs, and social classes, and an estimate of the nature of the psychic interval between the natural and the culture races. For graduate students. Major. Associate Professor Thomas.
28. Sex in social organization. The influence of the fact of sex in the development of forms of association and of social activity and structure. Based principally on data from the natural races, and from the population of the city of Chicago, with a preliminary consideration of sex in the lower life-forms. For graduate students. Major. Associate Professor Thomas.
30. Primitive social control. A study of primitive juridical and political systems and of social conventions. Family, clan, tribal, and military organization, totemism, tribal and property marks, tapu, personal property and property in land, periodical tribal assemblies and ceremonies, secret societies, medicine men and priests, caste, blood vengeance, salutations, gifts, tribute, oaths, and forms of offense and punish. ment, among typical tribes of Australia and Oceanica, Africa, Asia, and America. Major. Associate Professor Thomas.
31. Race development of mind. Research course. Major. Associate Professor Thomas.
51. Contemporary society in the United States. A concrete study of natural conditions, the population and its distribution, institutions, economics, political, educational, and ecclesiastical, together with an examination of conventional ideas as to national characteristics. The course is designed to afford a general survey, and to correlate geography with social and economic history and political science. Major. Associate Professor Vincent.
52. American cities. A study of the location, growth, population groupings, arrangements, architecture, and typical institutions of American cities. The aim of the course is to put the problems of the modern city into their proper relations, to exhibit urban life as a whole. Visits to certain city institutions constitute a part of the course. Major. Associate Professor Vincent.
53. The family. The development of the domestic institutions in lower and higher civilizations; social ethics of the family; legal, industrial, educational, and religious problems of the family. Major. Professor Henderson.
56. The group of industrials. The labor movement from the viewpoint of sociology.
(119) The influence of habitat, race, inheritance, migration, division of labor, towns, institutions, and conventions on the differentiation and opportunities of the so-called operative class, the actual condition of this group, and their participation in the goods of civilization; the essentials of a truly human existence ; the modes by which improved ideals of welfare originate and are diffused; the social system of economic, political, and cultural organization through which the group must enjoy the social inheritance ; description, criticism, program of amelioration. Major. Professor Henderson.
57. Rural communities. Conditions of social existence in the country ; organization for improvement. Minor. Professor Henderson.
58, 59, 6o. Seminar: methods of social technology. Discussions, reports, and thesis work on contemporary movements for social betterment, chiefly on the basis of studies of Chicago life. Three majors. Professor Henderson.
61. Urban communities. Method of analytic study of social organization ; comparisons of ancient and modern cities ; the system of community bonds and interests ; functions of political, economic, and cultural organizations as determined by social interests ; the modes of quickening higher wants and the co-operation of public and private agencies in their satisfaction. Major. Professor Henderson.
62. Moral and culture statistics, methods and results.
63. Social institutions of organized Christianity. Methods by which the church and its societies minister to the welfare of communities. Major. Professor Henderson.
64. Contemporary charities. Studies of the nature and origin of depressed and defective classes; principles and methods of relief; organization of benevolence. Major. Professor Henderson.
65. Social treatment of crime. Causes of crime; principles of criminal anthropology ; prison systems ; legal factors, juvenile offenders ; preventive methods. For graduate students. Minor. Professor Henderson.
67. The structure of English society. A study of the economic, physiological, social, aesthetic, intellectual, and ethical elements in a typical society. Major. Associate Professor Zueblín.
68. Philanthropy in its historical development. Major. Professor Henderson.
69. The elements and structure of society. A study of the economic, physiological, social, aesthetic, intellectual, and moral elements in American society. The interrelation of the individual and the group. The problem of social progress in a democratic society. Major. Associate Professor Zueblín.
70. Municipal sociology. An examination of the means of satisfying communal wants through public activity, with special reference to British and American cities. Lectures and reports. Visits to municipal institutions. Major. Associate Professor Zueblín.
71. An introduction to the study of society. This course is designed to serve as an introduction to the special social sciences of economics, political sciences, etc. For Junior and Senior College students. Major. Professor Small.
72. An introduction to sociology. Designed to orient the student in the current theories of social interpretation by tracing briefly their development. A rapid historical survey, including Machiavelli, Víco, Montesquieu, Turgot, Comte, Spencer, Lilienfeld, Schäffle, et al. The organic concept of society will be presented, illustrated, and criticised, and the current psychological theories of imitation, invention, opposition, will be briefly outlined. For Senior College and graduate students. Major. Associate Professor Vincent.
74. The methodology of the social problem. Based upon Course 78. A definition of the task of sociology, and of its relations to the specific social sciences. Professor Small.
74A. A synopsis of sociological theory. Designed to furnish a conspectus of general sociology. Minor. Professor Small.
75. The ethics of sociology. Major. Professor Small.
It is recommended that Professor Dewey's courses, the logic, the psychology, and the sociology of ethics, be taken either before or with Course 75.
76. The elements of social dynamics. A study of the permanent forces that shape human society. Courses 71, 72, 73, 26, and 74 are presupposed. Major. Professor Small.
77. The social philosophy of the English people in the Victorian era. Major. Associate Professor Zueblín.
78. The development of sociological method. From Comte to the present time. The object of this course is to discover the successive statements of the sociological problem, with the premises, methods, and results in the most influential writings, as an introduction to the necessary formulation of the sociological problem. Professor Small.
79. The sociological conception of society. For Senior College and graduate students. Major. Professor Small.
80. The sociological conception of the state and of government. (See Course 96.) For Senior College and graduate students. Major. Professor Small.
82, 83, 84. Seminar. Problems of social teleology. Three majors. Professor Small.
85, 86, 87. Seminar. Problems of social dynamics. In this course the facts of social psychology are studied with reference to the possibilities of telic progress. Three majors. Professor Small.
88, 89, 90. Seminar. Problems in methodology and classification. Three majors. Professor Small.
91. American experience with state control of social action. Major.
94. The premises of general sociology. Major. Professor Small.
95. An outline of general sociology. Major. Professor Small.
96. The sociological conception of the problems of modern democracy. Continues, but does not necessarily presuppose Courses 79 and 80. Major. Professor Small.
96A. Democracy and the social movement in the nineteenth century. Minor. Professor Small.
98. Education as a social function. Major. Associate Professor Vincent.
THE SOCIOLOGY CLUB.
The members of the Sociology Club are the instructors and graduate students in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology. By a vote of two-thirds of the mem-
(121) -bers of the club other persons, whether connected with the university or not, may be admitted to membership.
The purposes of the club are: "(a) co-operation in the study of current sociological literature, especially the periodicals of Europe and America ; (b) exchange of information about books upon sociology ; (c) formation of acquaintance with workers in the various kinds of social endeavor, whether theoretical or practical ; (d) mutual assistance, through criticism of studies upon sociological subjects presented by the members ; (e) support, whenever practicable, of social efforts organized either by members of the university or by citizens of Chicago." Meetings are held every fortnight.
DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY.
42, 43. Sociology of ethics. This course will approach the problems of ethics from the standpoint of social organization. In the autumn the ethical problems relating to the various institutions of society will be discussed ; in the winter the ethical problems relating to the connection of the individual and society. For graduate students. Two majors. Professor Dewey.
44. The psychology of ethics. This course will include particularly the ethics of self-control and self-realization, and the significance of psychological analysis for ethical theory. For graduate students. Major. Professor Dewey.
45, 46. The evolution of morality. This course will give a general review of the typical facts in the growth of moral customs and ideals. In the autumn quarter primitive human morality will be discussed, considering three or four types of tribal life, and the ethical development of institutions and the individual in these types. The method pursued is that of social psychology. In the winter quarter the Hebrew, Greek, and Roman civilizations will be discussed as regards their contributions to present moral practices and ideas. For graduate students. Two majors. Professor Dewey.
19. Contemporary social psychology. The development of social psychology from individual psychology will be traced, and its justification and methods discussed. Major. Associate Professor Mead.
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL ECONOMY.
3. Economic and social history. The object of this course is to trace for students of history and political science, as well as of economics, the development of the economic organization of society down to the time of the so-called industrial revolution in the latter part of the eighteenth century. Preparation is thus afforded for the detailed examination of special phases of the more recent economic evolution provided for in the courses upon railways, banking, agriculture, industrial combinations, etc. Major. Dr. Mitchell.
14. Economics of workingmen. The purpose is to treat of efforts made to improve the condition of workingmen, and the effects of co-operation, profit-sharing, building associations, manual training, trades unions, and the like. Major. Assistant Professor Veblen.