More Than Lore

Chapter 5: Kindred Spirits

Marion Talbot

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ONE day a student was registering a social affair in my office and I said to him, "You don't seem very interested or enthusiastic."

"Nο," he replied, "I don't see much sense in having the party."

"Why, then, do you have it?" I asked. "It's the tradition," was his reply.

"How long has it been the tradition ?" was my next question.

ever since I have been in the University." "How long is that?"

"Two years."

"Well," I said, "the first time that party was given was the second year before you came. Charles Lamb wrote of `the marrow of tradition.' If this tradition has no marrow it is no good; put a stop to it, here and now. Don't be afraid."

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There is a rather widespread opinion that youth are fearless and radical. This may be true in some directions, but in my experience they are almost invariably ultraconservative in social matters. They are servants, not masters, of their social customs. They ape, they do not initiate, both individually and in groups. For this reason the student body has often been unsuccessful in attempts to reorganize or disband societies or clubs which have outlived their purpose or proved objectionable. Several times attempts were made to abolish women's secret clubs. Courageous and quite intelligent efforts to limit the number of official positions one person could hold (the point system) always proved futile. At intervals the great multiplicity of organizations and the consequent overlapping of functions (if such a serious term could be applied) have led to a demand for simplicity, even to the point of abolishing all and starting fresh. Sometimes the only result has been that the mountain has brought forth a mouse, another feeble organization for the same rather limited group of so-called leading students to officer. There seems to be an almost awesome respect for what is and a hesitancy about replac-

( 74) -ing it by what should be. And yet anemia is often fatal, especially pernicious anemia; and there has been a high rate of mortality in the organizations. It might be thought that the University should step in and give the coup de grāce, but its policy has been to allow any group of students to organize, provided they stated their purpose and conformed to the simple rules laid down by the University. A study of the organizations which, month after month, have been given approval by the authorities would be richer in amount and more significant in content than is sometimes the case in Master's theses. If there had been no mortality, if little groups had not quietly expired, the University would have been in a sad plight. The condition has been bad enough in any case.

On the whole, the women's organizations have steered clear of serious difficulties, especially those groups which included a large number of women. Many, many little groups have been formed and given much pleasure and quietly lapsed. For several years after the University was opened, no need was felt for any general organization of the women; but in 1901 the Board

( 75) of Student Organizations authorized a commission under the chairmanship of the Dean of Women to proceed to the formation of a woman's club. On December 19 a constitution was adopted, and the Woman's Union of the University of Chicago started out on its useful and interesting career. All women connected with the University were eligible to membership on the payment of a quarterly fee of fifty cents or an annual fee of one dollar. The object was to unite the women of the University for the promotion of their common interests. The Disciples Church, a quaint, oddly shaped little building at the corner of Fifty-seventh Street and what was then called Lexington Avenue, was obtained for the use of the Union on weekdays, and the rooms were formally opened on January 8, 1902. There were not only accommodations for assemblies of considerable size; but in addition provision was made for a restroom, a reading-room, and a lunchroom. Receptions and entertainments were given weekly, and many distinguished women were the guests of the Union. Under the skilful direction of Miss Susan Wade Peabody, luncheons were prepared and served by the students;

( 76) and twice a week music was provided at the luncheon hour by a student committee. By special arrangement the secretary of the Young Women's Christian Association, or, as it was called for a time, the Women Students' Christian League, held daily office hours at the rooms; and other organizations of students occasionally had the use of the rooms for their functions. Much hard work was put into managing and carrying out the details of the undertaking, and a fine spirit of co-operation and service was developed. The experience in meeting responsibility was a valuable one. In addition, the happy companionship and the not infrequent merrymakings joined in making a store of very precious memories for all who participated, students and Faculty women alike.

The same general procedure was followed when in 1902, on the sudden and surprising erection of Lexington Hall, the church was returned to its rapidly growing membership and new quarters in the women's building were occupied. The lunchroom administration was transferred to the Women's Commons. This greatly lightened the labor and responsibility of the members of the

( 77) Union, but also resulted in losses of various kinds, especially in intimate social contacts and opportunities for certain types of initiative.

As time went on, it became apparent that voluntary and more or less casual services were no longer adequate, especially in view of the increasing number of women in the University and the demands made upon them. Keeping up the membership list and collecting fees was an exacting task. Quarterly tickets of different colors had to be issued four times a year; and the officers, if not the members, were often reminded of the popular lines written at the time that different-colored slips were issued on the street cars depending on the amount of the fare which had to be paid:

A pink trip slip for a six-cent fare.
A green trip slip for an eight-cent fare, and so on.
Punch in the presence of the passengare.

A regularly employed executive officer seemed necessary, but no funds were available. It was therefore decided to disband and proceed to the formation of a different type of organization. This action was precipitated by a communication sent on June 27, 1914, to the Board of Student Organizations by a committee of Spelman House

( 78) (the one non-residential house which had been established), whose chairman was Ethel Preston. This committee suggested that a new organization be formed to consist of representatives of all organizations which had women members, together with the faculty women of the Colleges of Arts, Literature, and Science, and a representative from the Faculty of the College of Education. The purposes of this council were to be the supervision of the social life of the University women, the formation of a well-balanced social calendar, and the development of plans for the administration of Ida Noyes Hall.

The provisions for membership in the Woman's Administrative Council, as adopted in the first constitution, were as follows:

1. Representatives of organizations made up exclusively of women and which are social in character
2. The University aides
3. The Senior women on the Student Council
4. Three members at large chosen by the Council
5. The Dean of Women
6. The Director of Physical Education
7. A member of the Faculty of the College of Education chosen by the Council
8. A member of the Faculty of Arts, Literature, and Science chosen by the Council

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The Executive Head, or a member of an associated organization, shall be its representative on the Council.

Additions to the membership may be made by the Council upon recommendation by the Executive Committee.

The following is a list of the original members:

Marion Talbot Dean of Women

Gertrude Dudley  Director of Physical Education for Women

Gertrude Van Hoesen   Faculty of the College of Education

Elizabeth WallaceFaculty of Arts, Literature, and Science

Julia Dodge     Young Women's Christian League

Alma Parmele Woman's Athletic Association

Elsie Johns Neighborhood Clubs

Agnes Riddell Women's Graduate Club

Dorothy Strachan Women's Glee Club

Marie GoodenoughInter-Club Council

Emma Low     Spelman House

Leona Coons   Nancy Foster Hall

Pauline Levi    Green Hall

Ruth Wiesinger    Kelly Hall

Ethel Mott  Greenwood Hall

Florence Bradley Beecher Hall

Treva Mathews    Masquers

Ruth Allen Student Council

Katherine BigginsUniversity aide

Caryl Cody     University aide

Katherine Covert University aide

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Phyllis Fay University aide

Grace Hotchkiss  University aide

Hilda MacClintockUniversity aide

Mary MacDonaldUniversity aide

Edith Smith     University aide

Irene Tufts University aide

Ruth Allen University aide

Jeannette Harvey Harpischord

Changes in the constitution were made later, partly in the makeup of the membership and, of greater importance, in making the promotion of the common interests (not merely the social life) of the women of the University the purpose of the Council. One of the original provisions was that an undergraduate student should be president. The result of this was that no interest was shown by the graduate women. This condition was remedied when the purpose was broadened and less emphasis was placed on undergraduate interests as such.

Under the presidency of Katherine Biggins the new organization started out on what proved to be a rather brief but important career. It was not long before the women's dream of a special building for their activities was realized through the generous gift of Mr. LaVerne Noyes, and all

( 81) the interests of Ida Noyes Hall were placed in the hands of a special commission appointed by President Judson. Then came the World War with its absorbing interests and the Woman Students' Training Corps, which, on the termination of the war, was reorganized as the Federation of University Women. Thereupon it was decided by the Women's Administrative Council to suspend operations until such time as its larger object of promoting the interests of all the women of the University, and not merely the undergraduates, could be served without duplication of effort.

One undertaking of the Council is worth noting in some detail, because it threw light on some questions which had been raised as to how the social life could be enriched and made to reach the women who in large numbers, it was asserted, had no social contacts and who felt the University to be a cold and unfriendly community. It was decided to have a general "social rally" on February 24, 1915, with refreshments and various forms of entertainment, and to send personal invitations to women undergraduates not enrolled as members of student organizations. Spe-

( 82) -cial committees were formed to carry out the plan, and a large number of the most prominent and socially experienced students devoted considerable time and effort to the attempt to solve what seemed to be a serious defect in the University life. Special pains were taken not to make known the basis on which invitations were sent. The outcome was that of the 239 invited, 19 were present! The total number present was 57, and this meant that there were twice as many hostesses as guests. Seven accepted in advance but were not present, and 11 sent regrets. No response was heard from 221. It was a disheartened and disappointed group that pondered the situation after the party was over. A generous and altruistic spirit had had a bad shock. Cynicism threatened to take its place. We all had to remind ourselves that in a group whose homes were in large measure in the city, other social ties and home obligations would doubtless be too absorbing to make social life in the University a factor in the students' lives. A view which I had always held was, to my regret, confirmed. My experience in the past had often led me to believe that some individuals seem obsessed with the

( 83) idea that the world's hand is against them, and no matter how often kindly and gracious social overtures may be made to them, the only reaction is that they withdraw still farther into their shells. Of course, one may be expected to go halfway in a gesture of friendliness; but going all the way and even then not meeting with any response is rather discouraging. In time it leads to a certain degree of cynicism and a willingness to let people "enjoy being left out," to paraphrase the old woman's phrase that she was "enjoying poor health, thank you." We came to the conclusion, some of us, that people of this type should be left to take the few steps needed to put themselves in touch with the different social activities which were announced as open to all, and not be coerced into social relationships against their will and at considerable cost to their well-wishers. Another and very different group consists of those who are inherently timid but who respond, though perhaps shyly, to expressions of friendliness. Any community made up, as the University is, of young people—not the young only—with different kinds of social background must have leadership which takes this situation

( 84) into account and tries to solve the difficulties it presents. It is clear that the precept "Children should be seen and not heard" dominates in many—not all, indeed—American homes. While in some groups the children occupy the whole of the scene, in others they are nonentities; in very few are they taught the art of conversation. In a survey which Miss Breckenridge and I made of the women in the Junior Colleges the response we received as to what they most wished to gain from their college was almost invariably in one form or another "to be at ease in social situations." I have no doubt that many of the Faculty families also, who tried to show hospitality to students, would have been glad if this could have been accomplished, for it was not easy to entertain shy and speechless guests. It is dangerous to generalize from such experiences as the Sunday-night supper to which a much-loved dean invited about one hundred students, of whom six appeared; or from the jolly class parties which Professor Miller gave at his home; or from the stone walls of men at class dances, who were adamant in refusing to be introduced to women whose appearance did not suit them; or, from the

( 85) amazingly beautiful and popular Senior woman, Suzanne Haskell, declining all invitations to dance with attractive and eager young men cialites" of the University, and, as one of the hostesses at a dance given by the Woman's Union, selecting as her partners one after another of the shy, awkward, and admiring lads who were in the social background.

A long story could be made of the varied groupings of students, and it would often awaken happy memories; but the story would be too long. One group, however, must not be passed by—the Club of Women Fellows. It was organized after an experiment by President Harper in devising a method by which the graduate students could gain experience in conducting the affairs of a college faculty. He realized, as I often had occasion to point out to women graduate students, that pure specialization in a field of scholarship usually has to be supplemented with a knowledge both of the significance of other subjects in an educational program and of practical and efficient methods of administering such a program. Accordingly, when, under pressure of work, he had to relinquish the direction of his

( 86) "little faculty," the time seemed ripe to call together the women Fellows, since it seemed probable that they would soon be called upon to take some responsibility in conducting the affairs of schools, if not of colleges. Monthly meetings were held in Kelly Hall or Green Hall; and after luncheon, sitting in a large circle—for we numbered from twelve to twenty—each one told of the investigation she was carrying on and discussed general problems of education. On one occasion I invited Mrs. Potter Palmer, who was generally acknowledged to be the leader of Chicago society, to be a guest of the Club. Mrs. Palmer was a woman of wide experience in affairs of the world, not only in this country but in Europe. It was quite clear, however, that she had never had an experience like this one; and she was very enthusiastic about having had the opportunity to meet the young scholars and to learn from them personally about their research.

A different type of organization needs some consideration. As has been related, President Harper, in opening the first meeting of the Faculty of Arts, Literature, and Science on October 1, 1892, after a few general remarks, outlined

( 87) some specific topics for consideration. The first of these was the establishment of secret societies. The subject had been considered already by the Board of Trustees, who suggested various restrictions. A chapter of a fraternity had been organized, and this fact precipitated a controversy which continued in various aspects through the succeeding years. It was clearly intended that the term "secret societies" meant fraternities, not sororities. A large number of the Faculty, probably a majority, were opposed to having the system introduced and were distinctly offended by having it thrust down their throats. Action was delayed so that a special committee might consider the matter and present recommendations. It followed that approval was given with unwonted restrictions. It was not long before there were signs that some of the national sororities were taking steps to establish chapters. Mrs. Palmer and I made it known that we were familiar with both the advantages and disadvantages of this type of social organization and that, at least during the formative period of the University, we would oppose its introduction. We realized that in many institutions sororities afforded

( 88) housing and social life which otherwise would not be available for women students. As the University of Chicago was to provide both these essential factors in the life of its students, and in addition the city provided cultural and social opportunities usually not within the reach of students in a small town, it seemed to us important that the situation should not be complicated by the introduction of policies directed by persons outside of the University and not familiar with its aims. As a result no further steps were taken at the time.

In 1894 Mrs. Palmer and I had a conference with three brilliant and able women undergraduates—Agnes Cook, Eleanor Jones, and Helen Thompson—who asked approval of a plan for the formation of a club for literary and social purposes. Although the element of secrecy was not very apparent, the basis of membership was highly selective; and we both felt considerable apprehension lest a factor be introduced into the life of the women which would be at variance with our plans. The high character of these students, their evident seriousness, and their worthy aims carried the day, although we realized that any

( 89) pledges they eagerly made could not be binding on future generations. I wrote as follows to President Harper:

I trust that you are pleased with the proposed women's undergraduate society, and that you approve of the dignified and self-respecting way in which they have made known the formation of their organization. It is the outcome of another struggle on the fraternity question which, though hydra-headed, has thus far been kept under control. I believe that this society will be a help in meeting the efforts of secret societies which are ambitious and eager to found chapters in our University, even against the judgment of our best and strongest women. If you approve of this movement, I trust there may be a chance for you to tell the young women who are concerned in it; if you have any suggestions to make, I am sure they will gladly receive them, as they have the interests of the University as much at heart as their own personal pleasure.

He returned the letter with the following comment: "Very much indeed. Please secure me the chance to express my feelings."

Following their example, four other groups took similar steps. The club system was established, and soon the features which we had dreaded appeared. For years, and even now, as with the fraternities, discussion has been continuous, criticism and defense have been keen, and at

( 90) intervals there have been sharp controversies. Naturally, the national sororities have wished to extend their influence, and probably their prestige, by having chapters in the University of Chicago. The first clubs were hardly on their feet before rumors were rife that in fact and in secret they were chapters of sororities. This was οfficially denied by their respective presidents, who emphatically repudiated misstatements made in the Chicago papers and even in the University of Chicago Weekly.

In 1896 steps were taken by outside women to establish a chapter of a sorority. At that time I sent the following letter to President Harper:

When Mrs. Palmer and I undertook to organize and influence the life and activities of the women of the University, we agreed to try to establish three principles—liberty, equality, unity. In view of the special conditions which distinguish this University from all others to which women are admitted, we thought that we could be successful in securing these characteristics to a degree entirely unknown elsewhere.

Although Mrs. Palmer was a member of a fraternity, she believed that methods of this kind of organization were in distinct antagonism to the ends we were seeking; and we both agreed that even though in some colleges these societies might offer some advantages, together with their

(91) generally acknowledged disadvantages, we should discourage every effort to establish them here, where the spirit of a great University, rather than of a provincial college, should be fostered. Since the general vote of the Trustees allowing fraternities to be established was passed without special reference to the effect on the somewhat complicated and extremely important form of house organization which was developing among the women, we have acted in accordance with our own judgment; and when, from time to time, women from other institutions have visited us with a view to establishing their fraternities here, we have told them of our preferences and they have courteously withdrawn.

Believing that it was very desirable that we should not seek to maintain a policy which should be at variance with the spirit of the University, I have, on every possible occasion, sought to learn the real preference of the students. The fact that for nearly four years no organization was formed, although there had been no prohibition and no general knowledge or discussion of our position, has led me to think that there was no demand for fraternities on the part of our women.

In March, 1896, steps were taken by women from other institutions to establish a chapter here. When I learned of this, I decided that possibly my own views should be modified; and I stood ready to do this and always shall on any subject when, with further knowledge, I am convinced that it should be done. At the same time I made up my mind that no system involving the social relations of all the women of the University could be justly introduced without the

(92)  approval of those who were even only indirectly involved. As the first step in securing the information I needed, I called a meeting of the women officers of the University. Of the twenty-six invited, twenty-two came and, greatly to my surprise, voted unanimously and signed a paper to the effect that in their opinion the establishment of sororities in this University is undesirable. Several of those who thus voted were active and loyal members of sororities in other places. They appointed a committee to ask the women of the University Colleges to consider the subject. The meeting which was called was not largely attended, probably because of the near approach of the examinations; but of those who voted, three-quarters were opposed to having fraternities here

In view of the fact that a petition has been received from a few women asking for the recognition of a society which, if granted, will be followed by the enforced establishment of the whole system, and in view also of the desire of many of the women who have responsibility and influence that the system should not be introduced during this formative period, will it not be possible for you t call together the women of the Senior Colleges and ask for an expression of their opinion as to whether fraternities should be established now or postponed until some later time when there should be a general demand for them from within rather than without?

I realize fully that the simplest and easiest way of solving the problem would be to recognize the fraternities at once; but though the dangers which I foresee and which the older women in other institutions warn us against will not come in large measure until after I give up my charge, I am

(93)  ready to do all in my power and spare no effort to establish the life of the women here upon lines along which it can permanently develop to the highest good of the institution and its members.

The women officers sent in the following communication:

At a meeting of the women officers, including fellows, held on March 20, 1896, at which twenty-two out of twenty-six were present, the following resolution was unanimously adopted:

Resolved: That it is the sense of this meeting that under the conditions existing in this University it is not advisable to introduce sororities.

Some of the arguments leading to this resolution were:

1. Since the local chapter is governed by the general organization, the presence of sororities here would mean a certain degree of influence upon our government by other institutions.

2. It is the policy of this University to emphasize a democratic spirit by means of the house life, and it is felt that sororities would militate against this policy.

3. In our University, in the midst of this large city, there are already too many distractions and demands upon the time of the students without the additional demands arising from sororities.

A committee was then appointed which was empowered to call a meeting of the women of the University Colleges

(94)   to lay before them this resolution and to ascertain their opinion on the subject.

It was perhaps natural that a poll of the members of the women's clubs resulted in an expression of their desire that sororities should not enter the University. This, theoretically at least, put an end to the rumors that the clubs were actually sub rosa chapters of sororities.

Α vigorous and not altogether satisfactory correspondence was carried on with those who were most active in pushing the proposed chapter. The interest of certain influential women had been secured; but when they learned of the prevailing opposition among the women of the University, they withdrew their support. Considerable time was thus spent. In the course of the discussion the request was brought officially to the Board of Student Organizations. Α special committee was appointed. on March 20, 1897, to consider the matter further.


Your Committee would report that, of the seven petitioners, three have left the University and two have withdrawn their names from the petition. Two of the patron-

(95)  esses, Miss Helen Culver and Mrs. W. I. Thomas, have declined to serve and have expressed their regret that they did not earlier understand the full significance of the project.

Your Committee would recommend (1) that the request be laid upon the table; (2) that no similar requests be granted until some of the problems now engrossing the attention of the women be more nearly solved and until it be evident that there is a general demand for the fraternity system from a considerable body of the students, indorsed by the women of the Faculty; (3) that the present request, together with those already informally received by Miss Talbot, receive the first attention if in the future the system should be introduced.

In June, 1897, the following action was taken by the Board:

1. That the petitioners be notified that the Council does not deem it expedient to grant their request; and

2. That no similar requests be granted until some of the problems now engrossing the attention of the women be more nearly solved, and until it be evident that there is a general demand for the fraternity system from a considerable body of the students, indorsed by the women of the Faculty.

3. That the present request, together with those already informally received by Dean Talbot, receive the first attention if in the future the system should be introduced.

This action showed that, although Mrs. Palmer's official connection with the University had ended

( 96) two years previously, her convictions were shared by many of the Faculty.

Nevertheless, the question would not down. To a great many persons, even to members of the University, the situation seemed to mean discrimination against women. Accordingly, in June, 1897, the following communication was received by me:

The following communication of the University Council to the Board of Student Organizations, etc., was received by the Board of Student Organizations, etc., and adopted, and the reference voted, at its meeting of June 5, 1897:

The Council requests the Board of Student Organizations, etc., to refer to the women officers for further consideration the question of the introduction of women fraternities and their adaptation to the house life among the women.

It was also voted that the women officers be requested to report on this and similar matters referred to it at the December meeting of the Board.

It was a considerable time before the matter reached the Board of Student Organizations and could be referred to the women as directed. Their reply follows:

Two questions were submitted by the Board to the women officers of the University, viz.:

Ι. The further consideration of the introduction of wom-

(97)   -en's intercollegiate fraternities and their adaptation to the house life among the women.

II. The withdrawal of approval from all secret local clubs among the women and the forbidding of the initiation of women students into these clubs.

The questions were first submitted by the Dean of Women to the Club of Women Fellows. After prolonged discussion it was declared by a vote of 13 to 0, 1 not voting, to be the judgment of the Club that intercollegiate fraternities are not at present adapted to the life of the women of the University of Chicago.

At a subsequent meeting it was unanimously voted that in the opinion of the Club of Women Fellows approval should not at present be withdrawn from the local secret clubs, although the Club considers them as strictly experimental and therefore urges the Board of Student Organizations to encourage all forms of association which tend to promote a spirit of unity and democracy and to develop those qualities which result from co-operative effort.

The action taken by the Club was heartily indorsed by the women of the Faculty, and the Dean therefore begs leave to submit that both questions are answered in the negative by the women officers.

The years passed uneventfully after these decisions had been reached, except for occasional inquiries as to the attitude of the University in regard to sororities, until 1924. At that time Dean Ernest H. Wilkins organized a campaign among the students for a "Better Yet Chicago."

( 98) Among the committees he organized was one to consider the introduction of sororities. Rather reluctantly I assume he was not aware he was taking on a responsibility which, if not solely mine, was ours jointly, for he neither consulted me as to my views nor made known his plan to me until it was publicly announced. Many meetings and much talk ensued, but after a great to-do the subject again disappeared from the arena of public and official discussion. On my retirement in 1925, it was commonly believed and openly stated that "now that Dean Talbot has retired, the sororities will come in." But the anticipated invasion did not take place. Adverse opinion had grown rather than weakened; and the future of the men's fraternities, which was beginning to look dubious, added to the prevailing reluctance to complicate the problem by the presence of sororities.

Meanwhile, what of the clubs? As Mrs. Palmer and I dreaded, they rapidly lost their original characteristics and assumed the traits of sororities, with one exception, which seemed to us extremely important, viz., no outside organization had any voice in their management and the University could at any time eliminate or modify

( 99) them without difficult complications. Anyone going over the happenings and the discussions of the years which have elapsed would find in them ample material for an opera bouffe. Criticisms and difficulties arose thick and fast. In spite of the rulings of the University that no student could be initiated into a secret society whose work was not of passing grade, names of proposed initiates were often presented to me to be ruled upon who were found to be on probation. "Rushing," so-called, became an evil which it was sought to overcome by sets of rules, sometimes so minute as to be ridiculous and always such as to interfere with normal, friendly relations between older and younger students. Interclub councils, graduate advisory councils, and committees galore passed regulations, rescinded them, made new ones, again reverted to the original ones; and meanwhile faculty committees worked on the problem of how to make the clubs capable of exercising their genuine merits and at the same time doing away with trivial and envy- and suspicion-breeding practices. At one time the opposition to the system was so strong that some of the ablest and most prominent women students

( 100) withdrew in protest from their clubs. It was hoped that this action might result in abolishing them; but many influences, some sentimental, some practical, were too strong. From time to time there have been great improvements in their methods, and the Faculty have never cared to carry their doubts to the point of ruling against their continuance. Undoubtedly, some students have greatly profited by them and had social pleasures which would not otherwise have been within their reach; but, as I have seen the situation, this advantage has been far more than offset by the disappointments and ill feeling which have been caused among other students. Their significance in the social life of the University has been ridiculously overestimated. The number of members has always been comparatively small but rather conspicuous. Those students who have found social activity in connection with department clubs, religious organizations, the Athletic Association, the Young Women's Christian Association, the classes, and the many other organizations which the University has fostered, have enjoyed friendly associations more in keeping with the interests of intellectual, than of high social life.


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