Topical Summaries of Current Literature:
Social Psychology in America
University of Chicago
Any attempt to review social psychological literature will result in a list that is arbitrary and unsatisfactory. The reviewer is embarrassed by the riches of the material, at least in quantity.
Fortunately several excellent reviews have been made in the recent past, and to these the reader is cordially referred. Allport (3, 4, 7), Bernard (16), and Young (116) will keep the student busy for a while running down references, while Fischer (48) gives more of the foreign literature.
Something of the development of social psychology can be learned from the textbooks, beginning with Baldwin (9), who brought the social concept to the fore. One goes on to Ross (96), who brought the torch from France, and passes to McDougall (79), whose theory of instinct still occupies the center of the stage. The differences between McDougall and Shand (97) have been the subject of considerable writing.
While Thorndike (100) was not writing for social psychologists, they have made much use of his work. Ginsberg (54) represents the beginning of a reaction against McDougall, while Wallas (105) is uncritical of the central doctrine. Holt represents an effort to synthesize Freudianism and behaviorism, and Allport (5) is writing the social psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist. Groves (56) is another synthesizer, while Williams (114, 115) represents a fresh approach, his work being the social psychological implication of Giddings' theory. Cooley (26, 28) is one of the pioneers in the field whose influence has been growing from the beginning. Many efforts to synthesize the subject have naturally been made, notable among which are those of Ellwood (43), Bogardus (20), and Bernard (14). Bartlett (11) uses the old tools but with fresh material, while Gault (51) comes to social psychology from the laboratory, and Dunlap (39) writes a psychology of desire. Balz (10) argues against
( 624) individualism, Znaniecki (117) makes psychology the analysis of a social act, while Dewey (31) treats it under the head of habit and impulse generating intelligence and leading to moral life.
Of general theoretical articles there is no end. A few must suffice, quite arbitrarily chosen. Dewey (33) gives comfort to the instinct school for the last time. The general task of social psychology is excellently stated by the editors of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology (40). Cooley (27) argues again for the type of introspection which Faris (47) agrees to. Kroeber (72) would seem to identify sociology and social psychology, while Lowie (77) makes the point that culture is essentially psychology. Bentley (12) urges the importance of group and individual investigation, Judd (63) argues for the study of institutions, and Faris (46) appeals for ethnology as psychological material.
One of the liveliest controversies of the past five years has referred to instincts. Dunlap (36, 37) was very early with his articles, and the attack was carried on by Bernard (15), Faris (44), Kuo (74, 75, 76), and others. There was naturally an answer from Professor McDougall (80, 81) and his friends, among whom Wells (111, 112, 1113) was very vigorous. Dunlap (38) answered McDougall, and Eldredge (41) attempts a synthesis. Cason (24) argues that gregariousness is not an instinct, and Drever (35), a stout defender, classifies them. The controversy was continued by Geiger (52, 53), Griffith (55), and Tolman (103, 104) and produced two valuable books by Josey (62) and Bernard (13). At the present time the anti-instinct crowd can claim Watson, Dewey, and Allport, while the partisans of McDougall are busy strengthening their position and guarding more carefully their statements.
The ancient controversy concerning the one and the many has been revived by the publication of McDougall's Group Mind (78), to which general problem Follett (49) is addressed. Wallis (106) argues for the reality of the group, and so does Boodin (21). Ellwood (42) insists that culture is psychic, and Davy (30) gives a clear statement of the position of his French masters. Allport (1, 2) attacks vigorously what he calls the "group fallacy," and Perry (89) in a piece of fine writing tries to laugh the mystics out of court.
The writer cannot forbear mention of the Gestalt psychology, which has been introduced into this country so persuasively and so skilfully by Koffka (66, 67, 68) and Köhler (69, 70, 71) . A very adequate study of the Gestalt psychology, with critical notes, has been made by Helson (58).
Some worth-while discussions have appeared concerning environ-
( 625) -ment. Carmichael (23) insists that heredity and environment are not antithetical and is in line with Jennings (61) and his biological friends. Bernard (17) emphasizes environment and proposes a hyphenated term. Herskovits (60) writes of environment under the head of social patterns, but there is much more literature on environment than is here cited.
The problem of the nature and the origin of the personality has received treatment from various sources. Basic to the work of a whole group of social psychologists are the articles of Mead (82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87). Mead has consistently elaborated the approach to the problem which emphasizes behavior and at the same time by the aid of the doctrine of the significant symbol brings in the imagination and redintegration. Perhaps the most important contribution Mead has made to our thought is his discussion of the implication of self-stimulation. In taking the rôle of the other the individual becomes conscious of himself. Prince (92, 93) is still interested in the problem of dissociation, and while multiple personality exists, yet he would at times prefer to define personality as the sum total of our traits. Thomas (98) discusses personality as habit formation, and Burgess (22) emphasizes the rôle of the group. Kempf (65) is no longer new, but still important. His is the emphasis upon the visceral factors with an effort to synthesize psychoanalysis.
Discussion of intelligence runs the gamut from logic to mental tests. Bode (19) has a discussion that is far too little known, and Thurstone (101, 102) has a view of intelligence quite different from that of the ordinary laboratory psychology worker. There is a good behavioristic account in Dashiell (29), while Herrick (59) attacks some psychological problems in opposition both to behaviorism and to the school of McDougall.
The concept of types has been little advanced since the publications of Jung (64) and Downey (34). Reuter (95) and Faris (45) attempt to recommend the concept of social attitudes for general favor.
It is a matter for regret and searching of heart that when we come to the literature on actual methods of research in social psychology we have very little to report. Thomas and Znaniecki (99) introduced the method of studying personality from private letters and autobiographies. Krueger (73) has carried on the work of collecting life-histories and proposes some criteria. Hart (57) and Ream (94), by means of questionnaires and blanks to be filled out, have worked out tests of social relations which have been rather widely imitated. Allport (6) has tried to work out the personality traits both by the method of rating and by that of self-estimate. Moore (88) has a similar measure of aggressiveness, and the
( 626) Pressey tests (90,91) for investigating emotions deserve mention although they have been out for some years.
Blanton (18) is typical of studies on children, and Watson's papers (107, 108, 109, 110) are models of careful, controlled observation. Garth (50) may be cited as representing the attempt to establish racial differences, and Chapin's paper (25) is a model for the study of social phenomena by statistical methods.
The Psychologies of 1929, edited by Murchinson, and The Problems of Personality, issued in honor of Morton Prince, are not included in this bibliography because they have been so recently reviewed in this Journal.
They constitute, however, the best recent literature in this field.1. Allport, F. L. "The Group Fallacy in Relation to Culture," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XIX, 185-91.
2. ———. "The Group Fallacy in Relation to Social Science," Journal o f Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XIX, 60-73.
3.———. "The Psychological Bases of Social Science," Psychological Bulletin, XXII, 561-74.
4. ———.. "Social Psychology [a review]," Psychological Bulletin, XVII, 85-94.
5.———. Social Psychology. New York, 1924.
6.———. "Personality Traits: Their Classification and Measurement," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XVI, 1-40.
7.———. "Personality and Character," Psychological Bulletin, XVIII, 441-55.
8.———. "The Study of the Undivided Personality," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XIX, 132-41.
9. Baldwin, J. M. Social and Ethical Interpretations. New York, 1902.
10. Balz, Albert. The Basis of Social Theory. New York, 1924.
11. Bartlett, F. C. Psychology and Primitive Culture. New York, 1923
12. Bentley, M. "A Preface to Social Psychology," Psychological Monograph, XXI, 1-25.
13. Bernard, L. L. Instinct: A Study in Social Psychology. New York, 1924.
14 .———. An Introduction to Social Psychology. New York, 1926.
15.———. "The Misuse of Instinct in the Social Sciences," Psychological Review, XXVII, 96-119.
16. ———."Recent Trends in Social Psychology," Journal of Social Forces, II, 737-43.
17.———. "The Significance of Environment as a Social Factor," Publications of the American Sociological Society, XVI, 84-112.
18. Blanton, M. G. "The Behavior of the Human Infant during the First Thirty Days of Life," Psychological Review, XXIV, 456-83
19. Bode, B. H. "Consciousness and Psychology," Creative Intelligence. New York, 1917, pp. 228-81.
20. Bogardus, E. S. Fundamentals o f Social Psychology. New York, 1924
21. Boodin, J. E. "The Existence of Social Minds," American Journal o f Sociology, XIX, 1-47.
22. Burgess, E. W. "The Study of the Delinquent as a Person," American Journal of Sociology, XXVIII, 657-80.
23. Carmichael, Leonard. "Heredity and Environment: Are They Antithetical?" Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, XX, 245-60.
24. Cason, H. "Gregariousness Considered as a Common Habit," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XIX, 96-105.
25. Chapin, F. Stuart. "Measuring the Volume of Social Stimuli," Journal of Social Forces, V, IV (March, 1926), 479.
26. Cooley, C. H. Human Nature and the Social Order. New York, 1922.
27.———. "The Roots of Social Knowledge," American Journal of Sociology, XXXII (1926), 59-79.
28.———. Social Organization. New York, 1909.
29. Dashiell, J. F. "A Psychological-Behavioristic Description of Thinking," Psychological Review, XXXII, 54-73
30. Davy, G. "Problèmes de Psychologie Sociale," Journal de Psychologie, XX, 734-55.
31. Dewey, J. Human Nature and Conduct. New York, 1922.
32. ———.. "The Naturalistic Theory of Perception by the Senses," Journal of Philosophy, XXII, 596-605
33. ———.. "The Need for Social Psychology," Psychological Review, XXIV (1917), 266-77
34. Downey, J. E. "Jung's `Psychological Types' and Will-Temperament Patterns," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XVIII, 345-49.
35. Drever, J. "The Classification of Instincts," British Journal of Psychology (Gen. Sec.), XIV (1924), 248-55.
36. Dunlap, K. "Are There Any Instincts?" Journal of American Psychology, XIV, 307-11.
37. ———. "The Identity of Instinct and Habit," Journal of Philosophy, XIX (1922), 85-94.
38. ———. "Instinct and Desire," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XIV, 307-11.
39 ———. Social Psychology. Baltimore, 1925.
40. Editors. "The Field of Social Psychology and Its Relation to Abnormal Psychology," Journal o f Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XVI, 3-7
41. Eldredge, S. "Instinct, Habit and Intelligence in Social Life," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XIX (1924), 142-54
42. Ellwood, C. A. "Mental Patterns in Social Evolution," Publications of of the American Sociological Society, XVII, 88-100.
43 ———. The Psychology of Human Society. New York, 1925.
44 Faris, E. "Are Instincts Data or Hypotheses?" American Journal of Sociology, XXVII, 184-96.
45.———. "The Concept of Social Attitudes," Journal o f Applied Sociology, IX, 404-9.
46. ———. "Ethnological Light on Psychological Problems," Publications of the American Sociological Society, XVI (1921), 113-30.
47 ———. "The Nature of Human Nature," Proceedings of the American Sociological Society, XX (1925), 15-29.
48. Fischer, Aloys. "Psychologie der Gesellschaft," Vergleichende Psychologie, II (München, 1922), 339-456.
49. Follett, M. P. Creative Experience. New York, 1924.
50. Garth, T. R. "The Problem of Racial Psychology," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, XVII (1922), 215-19.
51. Gault, Robert H. Social Psychology. New York, 1923.
52. Geiger, J. R. "Concerning Instincts," Journal of Philosophy, XX (1923), 57-68.
53.———. "Must We Give Up Instincts in Psychology?" Journal of Philosophy, XIX, 94-98
54. Ginsberg, M. The Psychology of Society. London, 1921.
55. Griffith, P. "The Psychological Phase of Human Instinct," Psyche, IV (1922),49-66.
56. Groves, E. R. Personality and Social Adjustment. New York, 1923.
57. Hart, H. "A Socialization Test," Survey, XLVII, 249
58. Helson, H. "The Psychology of Gestalt," American Journal of Psychology, XXXVI, 342-70, 494-526; XXXVI, 25-62, 189-223.
59. Herrick, C. J. Neurological Foundations of Animal Behavior. Brains of Rats and Men. Chicago, 1926.
6o. Herskovits, Melville J. "Social Pattern : A Methodological Study," Journal of Social Forces, IV (Sept., 1925), 57-69.
61. Jennings, H. S. "Heredity and Environment," Scientific Monthly, XIX, 225-38.
62. Josey, C. C. The Social Philosophy of Instinct. New York, 1922.
63. Judd, Charles H. "The Psychology of Social Institutions," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XX (1925-26), 151-56.
64. Jung, C. G. Psychological Types. New York, 1923.
65. Kempf, E. J. The Autonomic Functions and the Personality. New York, 1918.
66. Koffka, K. The Growth of the Mind. New York, 1924.
67.———. "Mental Development," Pedagogical Seminar, XXXII, 659-73.
68.———. "Perception : An Introduction to the Gestalt-Theorie," Psychological Bulletin, XIX, 531-85.
69. Köhler, W. "An Aspect of Gestalt Psychology, Pedagogical Seminar, XXXII, 691-723.
70.———. The Mentality of Apes. New York, 1925.
71.———. "The Problem of Form in Perception," British Journal of Psychology, XIV, 262-28.
72. Kroeber, A. L. "Possibilities of a Social Psychology," American Journal of Sociology, XXIII (1917), 633-50.
73. Krueger, E. T. "Personality and Life-History Documents," Publications of the American Sociological Society, XIX, 176-80.
74. Kuo, Z. Y. "Giving Up Instincts in Psychology," Journal of Philosophy, XVIII, 645-64.
75. ———. "How Are Our Instincts Acquired?" Psychological Review, XXIX, 344-65.
76. ———. "A Psychology without Heredity," Psychological Review, XXXI, 427-48.
77. Lowie, R. H. "Psychology and Sociology," American Journal of Sociology, XXI, 217-29.
78. McDougall, W. The Group Mind. New York, 1920.
79.———. An Introduction to Social Psychology. Boston, 1923.
80. ———. "Can Sociology and Social Psychology Dispense with Instincts?" American Journal of Sociology, XXIX, 657-70.
81.———.. "The Use and Abuse of Instinct in Social Psychology," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XVI, 285-333.
82. Mead, G. H. "A Behavioristic Account of the Significant Symbol," Journal of Philosophy, XIX, 157-63.
83. ———. "The Genesis of the Self and Social Control," International Journal of Ethics, XXXV (1925), 251-77.
84.———. "Social Consciousness and the Consciousness of Meaning," Psychological Bulletin, VII, 397-405
85.———. "Social Psychology as Counterpart to Physiological Psychology," Psychological Bulletin, VI, 401-8.
86. ———. "The Social Self," Journal of Philosophy, XX (1913), 374-80.
87.———. "What Social Objects Must Psychology Pre-Suppose?" Journal of Philosophy, VII (1910), 174-80.
88. Moore, H. T., and Gilliland, A. R. "The Measurement of Aggressiveness," Journal of Applied Psychology, V, 97-118.
89. Perry, R. B. "Is There a Social Mind?" American Journal of Sociology, XXVII, 561-72, 721-36.
90. Pressey, S. L. "A Group Scale for Investigating the Emotions," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XVI, 55-64.
91. Pressey, S. L., and Chambers, O. R. "First Revision of a Group Scale for Investigating the Emotions," Journal of Applied Psychology, IV, 97-104.
92. Prince, M. "The Problem of Personality: How Many Selves Have We?" Pedagogical Seminar, XXXII, 266-92.
93.———. "The Structure and Dynamic Elements of Human Personality," Journal of Applied Psychology, XV, 403-13.
94. Ream, M. J. "A Social Relations Text," Journal of Applied Psychology, VI, 69-73.
95. Reuter, E. B. "The Social Attitude," Journal of Applied Sociology, VIII, 97-101.
96. Ross, E. A. Social Psychology, New York, 1908.
97. Shand, A. The Foundations of Character. London, 1914
98. Thomas, W. I. "The Problem of Personality in the Urban Environment," Proceedings of the American Sociological Society, XX (1925), 30-39.
99. Thomas, W. I., and Znaniecki, F. The Polish Peasant in Europe and America. Boston, 1918.
100. Thorndike, E. L. Original Nature of Man. New York, 1913.
101. Thurstone, L. L. The Nature of Intelligence. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd., 1924.
102.———. "The Stimulus-Response Fallacy in Psychology," Psychological Review, XXX, 354-69.
103. Tolman, E. C. "Can Instincts Be Given Up in Psychology?" Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XVII, 139-52.
104.———. "The Nature of Instinct," Psychological Bulletin, XX, 200-218.
105. Wallas, G. The Great Society. New York: (1914).
106. Wallis, Wilson D. "The Independence of Social Psychology," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, XX (1925-26), 147-50.
107. Watson, J. B. "Recent Experiments on How We Lose and Change Our Emotional Equipment," Pedagogical Seminar, XXXII, 349-71.
108. Watson, J. B. and R. R. "Studies in Infant Psychology," Scientific Monthly, XIII, 493-515.
109. Watson, J. B. "The Unverbalized in Human Behavior," Psychological Review, XXXI, 273-80.
110. ———. "What the Nursery Has to Say about Instincts," Pedagogical Seminar, XXXII, 293-326.
111. Wells, W. R. "The Anti-Instinct Fallacy," Psychological Review, XXX (1923) 228-34.
112. ———. "The Meaning of Inherited and Acquired in Reference to Instinct," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XVII, 153-61.
113. ———. "The Value for Social Psychology of the Concept of Instinct," Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, XVI (1922), 334-43.
114. Williams, J. M. Foundations of Social Science. New York, 1920.
115. ———. Principles of Social Psychology, chap. i. New York, 1922.
116. Young, Kimball. Social Psychology in History Prospects of Social Science. New York, 1925.
117. Znaniecki, F. The Laws of Social Psychology. Chicago, 1825.