Immigration and Race Attitudes

Chapter 6: Media of Antipathy

Emory S. Bogardus

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Public attention is usually given to racial prejudice rather than to its counterpart, racial good will. But the more spectacular and melodramatic phenomena do not deserve to receive all the attention; the origins and development of racial friendliness also merit consideration. Racial antipathy, because of adverse sense impressions and racial prejudice, because of competition, do not have exact counterparts on the constructive side of the ledger. Pleasing sense impressions lead to one form or other of racial friendliness. The opposite of racial competition, or racial cooperation, does not produce the exact opposite of prejudice, but rather a rationalized form of friendliness and an organized program of helpfulness.

An attempt is made in this chapter to examine the origins of race friendliness. If the processes by which racial helpfulness have developed can be understood, then it will be possible to plan intelligently for the development of good will in a large way, instead of leaving the matter, as now, to haphazard and sporadic attempts to soften the rigors of antipathy and prejudice.

In examining the conditions under which racial friendliness is engendered, we observe certain behavior sequences. As in the case of the personal experiences that lead to racial prejudice, we again find that life patterns are paramount in explaining why some persons react in friendly ways to certain experiences while other persons do not react at all or perhaps unfavorably to the same type of experience. As in the preceding case, the life patterns at any particular

( 78) time are made up from the interaction of innate behavior tendencies, culture stimuli, and previous experience stimuli. In the immediate discussion attention will be directed to the personal experience origins of racial friendliness.

Both direct and derivative experiences arouse racial good will. Pleasing experiences or pleasing accounts of constructive race relations lead to a friendliness sequence. " Pleasing " refers to anything that furthers a person's interests or is in line with his life pattern.

In general, it may be said that the person experiencing a growth in friendly attitudes toward some race possesses certain behavior patterns (systems of neurones functioning as units, and connecting sense organs with effectors), which are " set off " or released by the appropriate stimuli. These stimuli are behavior traits of the members of different races. Since these behavior traits (objective) are discernible, while the behavior patterns (subjective) of the persons experiencing a growth in race friendliness are obscure, the former will occupy the center of attention in this discussion. The question at issue then is: What behavior traits of other races are likely to stimulate one's friendly behavior patterns? The following types of behavior traits have been isolated: (1) similar culture traits, (2) kindness and geniality traits, (3) dependability and justice traits, (4) persecution and oppression traits, (5) noncompetitive achievement traits. A careful study of the excerpts in this paper, taken from a large number of reports of the conditions under which race friendliness originates, will disclose what normally and naturally happens.

Similar Culture Traits. - Similar culture traits are bases of race friendliness. Races culturally similar have points of common understanding and grounds for the rise of fellow feeling. Next to our own races we prefer races similar to our own, because they seem to stand for about the same social values that we do. Races greatly dissimilar from

( 79) our own represent certain social values contradictory to those we hold. Further, if a person has a fondness for wit, for instance, and finds that an immigrant is likewise witty, a friendship bond not only for that person but for his race may be inaugurated.

The immigrant, however, must not be too superior in his culture traits. He must not invade our status, but must be superior in some complementary fashion to our achievements. He must not detract from us or even "threaten " to usurp our social position in any way.

A Canadian reports his increasing appreciation of the English. Since English institutions are closely similar to the Canadian, he finds little difficulty in understanding them. He is quick to notice their strong points. The English form of government is adjudged the best in the world, because in its Canadian form it works well in Canada. English heroes are great men. They have stood for principles similar to those which the Canadian ranks high.

An American of German lineage praises German culture and Germans. His father spoke German fluently and explained many German customs and practices. Some of these practices cause this American citizen to swell with pride, and others are discounted or excused. Although he was an American child in an American home and in an American environment, he had learned to understand German culture so that he found it " impossible to believe the stories of German atrocities told of the Germans during the World War."

52. I have a friendly attitude towards the Irish race. On trying to think out, as it were, the conditions under which I developed this friendly feeling toward this race, I found that it is no easy task to figure out just how and why I developed such an attitude. I think that group heritage colored my thinking on the subject and determined my attitude towards this race. Therefore, my attitude is not founded on any scientific or thinking basis.


I am a Catholic and attended Catholic schools all during my grammar and high school life. There are many Irish Catholics, and on the whole, they are very devout and practical in their religion. Their devoutness always impressed me greatly. This is one reason why I feel friendly toward the Irish.

St. Patrick's Day always had a special attraction for me. In the first place it always meant a half-holiday from school. I loved the colorfulness of it; and, above all, I loved the stories told me about it, e. g., Patrick fighting the snakes for the Irish. His bravery and brilliance always had a special attraction for me. The idea, also, of the Irish people being oppressed for so long made me friendly toward them.

Irish songs have always thrilled me. There is a certain simple, lyric quality about their music and their words that I love. I think this factor influenced me in my attitude toward the Irish.

In conclusion, I will state that my racial attitude is favorable toward the Irish because, first of all, I have never had any personal or general reason to feel unfriendly toward them and many reasons, though not scientific, or studied, for liking them and feeling friendly toward them.[1]

53. Personally, I have no prejudice against any race on the earth, and I have friends among many of the races. However, I suppose my most friendly attitude is toward the Scandinavian people, because I have been more in touch with them than any other. I am partly Norwegian and partly Swedish.

I have been reared in a rural community, and in this community I lived in a section which is largely composed of Danish and Swedish people. There are a few Norwegians also. Consequently, a good many of my playmates in the grade school were among the Danish and Swedish. My best girl chum is of Danish parentage, and we have been chums for some twelve years. During my high school days, I held several school offices, and I always seemed to find the students of these races so willing to help and to do their share of the work. I found the best literary talent in the whole school among the Danish girls, and I had one of them for my first assistant on the year-book staff. I also had boy friends among these races and went to parties and affairs with them. Although they were very much like all other boys I knew, I did find some distinct characteristics. First of all, I found them to be much neater in dress on the average than boys from other races. Secondly, I found them to have more regard

( 81) for their homes. The Danish and Swedish homes are linked together much closer than the so-called American homes. They have many family reunions; and since their families are usually large, the family is the real social group. The mothers in Danish and Swedish homes are genuine housekeepers and home-makers. They all know how to sew and cook to perfection.

One of the greatest of influences toward a favorable attitude was the fact that I had two lovely neighbors, one a Danish and the other a Swedish family. As there were children in each, I was in both homes a great deal. The mother of the Danish family taught me how to crochet and to do other fancy work. The Swedish mother always had cookies for us to eat. I loved both homes and thought them ideal.

I have always found these races to be good American citizens. This settlement of which I am so familiar always turns out almost 100 per cent strong on election days. They gave liberally of their sons during the war, gave their money, and they take part in civic affairs. As a whole, they are a farming people and do not take so much part in the town affairs, but I have known several town leaders who have been Danish and Swedish. They back up school entertainments and community affairs also. They do " clique " together a great deal, but they do not seem to let their affairs interfere with the good of the community.

I admire and love the Danish and Swedish people for what they are. They have so many traits of good living which the average Americans do not have [2]

Kindness and Geniality Traits. - Kindness and geniality traits arouse friendliness reactions. The immigrant or " foreigner " who is generous is doing his race a good turn and promoting inter-racial good will. Temperament figures in the origins of race friendliness. The Irish, for example, are referred to as a jovial, congenial people. Their frankness is also an asset. They have a " giving nature." Geniality arouses friendliness. If an immigrant helps a native " out of trouble," he is repaid with friendly " good turns." Every one has personal behavior patterns which are promptly released by kind deeds and by thoughtfulness. Courtesy, politeness, and respect stimulate friendly

(82) responses. On this basis, for instance, Americans develop good-will attitudes toward Japanese. One American out of many reports that he has the most friendly feeling toward the Japanese, because he has never met a member of that race who has not been " most courteous, polite, and respectful," even more so than his fellow Americans are. " They all act as if it were a pleasure to them to speak to you, and they enjoy doing you a favor."

An American workman, forced, as he says, to work with Filipinos, found them to be " congenial, friendly, and always willing to lend aid." Moreover, they were quiet, reserved, and well behaved, " meeting the approval of all with whom they worked." He became a loyal friend to the race. An American woman viewed askance a family which moved into her neighborhood. The father was an American and the mother a Filipino. The mother was not socially respected; and yet much to the surprise of the American woman, the children were well-behaved and made good playmates in the neighborhood. One day Mrs. G., the American, suffered a serious cut, and the Filipino woman took charge and dressed the wound. " That simple action of kind thoughtfulness and courtesy has raised in my mind the status of the Filipino."

54. Having been born in the South and practically brought up by a " black mammy," owing to the continued illness of my mother, I suppose I have a more kindly feeling toward the Negro group than any other race group. Somehow it has always seemed to me that the attitude of the Negro has been very favorable toward my race, and I have found members of the Negro group sympathetic and coöperative. And I have not always found members of other groups as considerate as the Negro group.

My attitude may be due to my " black mammy," but even so, she isn't the only member of her race group that has influenced my judgment. However, she ministered to all my childish wants and wishes and in later years has won from me the highest degree of admiration and respect. It is to her that I owe credit for the formation of earner habits which are governing my life today.[3]

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55. An incident which occurred recently after I had studied Spanish, increased my admiration and friendliness toward Mexicans. I was cutting the lawn in front of our home when an aged Mexican came slowly up the hill. He seemed to be exerting all his energy just to walk. Behind him came a very unhappy-looking dog. He stopped on the walk before me and asked for water. I got the hose and started the water running. He filled his old hat, and to my surprise gave it to his dog before taking a drink himself. As the dog drank I could hear his master mumbling, " Gracias a Dios! Gracias a Dios! " (Thank God.) There was something about him that attracted me strongly, so I tried to start a conversation. He told about the goodness of his dog, and at last about the strength and eternity of Dios. His attitude, his almost primeval faith, was typical of the Mexican people, and it is a thing of great beauty. I like them because they are a good and friendly people.[4]

56. I have a very friendly feeling towards the Indians. This feeling originated when I was a very little girl, because I was born and reared in a town that was located right on an Indian reservation on the plains of South Dakota.

From the time I was old enough to understand what my mother and father talked about, I learned that the Indians there in South Dakota were a very friendly, submissive, and peaceful people. Even to this day I have a friendly feeling toward them. This feeling has been developed by many different deeds and things of kindness that they have done towards me and my people.

My father was a minister, and many times I used to ride with him to and from his country churches. I remember especially one very cold winter day. It was near sunset, and my father and I were driving with a team homeward. We were bundled up warm, but the cold wind blew in our faces. It was a sharp cold wind. We were singing as we were driving along the lonely stretch of road. We met a buggy. The road was very narrow. The other buggy turned out into the field in order that we could safely pass. When the Indians in the buggy discovered that it was my father they came over to us, asked if we had enough robes, etc., and gave us a warm " foot grate " that they had in order that we should not freeze.

The Indians used to bring wild fruit and berries that they had gathered from the near-by groves to my mother, " for the children to cat " and for her " to can." They would also bring turkeys, etc., at Thanksgiving time.

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Sometimes, though not as a general rule, they would come to church to hear my father preach. They felt isolated because of their color and life, but would come whenever they felt " it would look all right."

When my father passed away, the Indian tribe there sent a beautiful floral cross. It was labeled "from friends." They sent delegates, as they called them, to the funeral, but not wanting to take up room of the white friends, they stood outside with hats off and bowed heads in reverence to their departed friend. These and many other instances have developed my friendly feeling toward the brown race-the Indians.[5]

Dependability and Justice Traits. -Dependability and justice traits produce friendly responses. To find immigrants wholly reliable is surprising to most people and especially to those who have preconceived notions to the contrary. One is ordinarily suspicious of strangers and " foreigners," but to find them scrupulously honest is compelling.

The immigrant, so often exploited, is likely to develop an exploitation complex and act the part unwittingly. When his economic circumstances have been low, he has had to be penurious. He has handled small-coin money to such an extent that he has developed " small-coin " contacts with Americans accustomed to large " bills." Sometimes he has come from a " tipping economy and shirks when not treated generously." An immigrant becomes " attractive " when he acts dependably and renders as much or more service than he is paid for. To find merit where one has not been led to expect it is pleasing. Genuineness is a trait to which almost any one will respond favorably.

If a person is among strange people or in a situation where he might easily be taken advantage of in a strange part of his own city and if he is treated aboveboard and not cheated, he will experience good-will feelings. Common decency brings forth favorable responses.

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An oppressed race is especially responsive to just treatment. The members of any race, no matter how low on the scale of development, react in a friendly way to fairness. The just dealings of William Penn with the Indians produced a harvest of undying friendliness reactions. " Higher " races also respond appreciatively to honorable treatment by " lower " races.

57. When I was a very little girl, my father had a grocery store in a small country village. Every one for several miles around there came to trade.

Among my father's very best customers was a kind, respectable, and quite well-educated Negro lady. Every Saturday when she came to trade she brought her little daughter Levina with her. Levina and I had been friends since I was two and Levina four years old. I liked her better than any of my other playmates.

One Saturday when Levina came I was out of doors for the first time after a siege of the whooping cough. Levina was very sorry for me because I could not play. We sat on the porch, watching my little pet kitten frisk about in the grass. A boy came along with his dog, and the usual thing happened. The boy sicked his dog on my little kitty. I was not able to run to its rescue, but Levina was and did. She snatched up the kitten, ran down the walk, and gave the boy one of the most severe scoldings I have ever heard. I can still see her tight little pigtails bobbing up and down, as she shook her head and stamped her foot in indignation.

I have never felt anything but friendly toward Negroes since then, and I especially like little girls with numerous pigtails.[6]

58. When I was a small boy, my father kept a general store in a rural community close to Pasadena. The county, at that time, was constructing a new road through the district, and there were about fifty Mexican laborers encamped in a little settlement about a half-mile from our store. They traded with us for most of their supplies, and my father, being possessed of considerable blind faith, gave most of the families credit, to the extent of sixty days if necessary.

Few of the Mexican boys my age could speak my language, but we played together and learned to make each other understand by means of gestures and facial manipulations. My father, unlike

( 86) most of the American fathers of the district, did not object to my playing with them, so they liked me for my seeming democracy, and naturally, I responded with friendship. They were more carefree and jubilant than American boys, and I came to enjoy their company more than that of my white playmates.

When the road was finished, they stayed to work on the Devil's Gate Dam site and as a consequence were in our district for another year. My father had come to trust them very much, and he knew them all as Jesus, or Pedro, or Jiménez, or Pablo. He told me that they were a good, devout people and that the hearsay that they were the most dishonest people on earth was not true.

In the second year of our acquaintanceship with them, a very disturbing incident occurred. Two of the most trusted families of the group left without notice, leaving unpaid bills to my father to the extent of two hundred dollars. It was a blow to all of us, both financially and from the standpoint of our faith in them. My father expected to hear from them by mail, but no news came. After a month had passed we were visited by a committee of the Mexicans. They went into a back room and had a long talk with father. When they left they were smiling and chatting together as if a good thing happened. That night my father told us that they had come to pay the unpaid bills of the other families and that, when he had refused to accept, they had insisted. That experience clinched our belief in the goodness of the Mexican people .[7]

59. Till very recently, I held the Jews in much disrespect. My view was partly supported but in the main without foundation, except as one might consider prejudice and misinformation reasonable grounds for opinion and belief. I had formed opinions concerning the Jew in the light of current antagonism as expressed by those about me. My views were incorrect as touching the part he played in the killing of Christ - a very excellent character as I thought then and now.

But after personal investigation and observing Jewish life at close range, I must confess that I am more favorably disposed and more agreeably impressed with them for many reasons, a few of which I will enumerate.

I have observed that the Jew, in contradistinction to his brother Caucasian has respect for his Negro clientèle. He opens up a grocery store in n Negro district, and a colored boy or girl

(87) is given a job as clerk. A picture house is put into operation, and invariably a Negro girl sells tickets. Having a keen aptitude for making money, the Jew sees wherein a drug store will go well on a colored neighborhood corner, and immediately a Negro pharmacist is given opportunity to practice his profession, thereby earning money to set up business for himself.

This policy on the part of the Jew may proceed from a purely diplomatic purpose. He personally may not have his employee's interest at heart any more than his brother who operates the chain of exclusive stores in the loop, but it must be appraised in economic terms by the one who is employed, and so considered by all who judge his action. For after all it is better to give a man a job so that he may work than to have to give him a loaf of bread because you did not give him work.

Another phase of this policy is that it must be evaluated and placed to the credit of the Jew in terms of religion. He acts somewhat religiously (perhaps unintentionally), in that he gives the job to the Negro when he could put his own race into the position and get. the same result; for the Negro has not yet learned what it is to be insulted, his "consciousness of kind" instincts are not yet fully aroused, and his race consciousness is yet sleepy.

Similar racial experiences make for sympathetic attitudes. This is shown in the philanthropic efforts of Rosenwald. Any one holding unfavorable views of a race cannot but change when he reflects on the big-heartedness of this Jew. Others give out of human sympathy; he gives out of sympathy plus racial experience.

The Jew's commercial acumen and business tact excites my admiration, and also the fact that he has shown coöperative tendencies to help the Negro in honest endeavor. those qualities cannot be despised in any people, and they have had the effect of changing my respect and attitude toward the Jew .[8]

Persecution and Oppression Traits. - Persecution and oppression traits arouse sympathetic responses. To see other human beings suffering opens the floodgates of human sympathy. Stories of a massacre are effective stimuli to friendly and sympathetic reactions toward the victims.

If a person has ever been an immigrant himself and been

( 88) exploited, he is in a position to respond to the supplication of oppressed races. " The Negro," says a member of that race, " has been oppressed so long and under such a variety of conditions that he can sympathize with all oppressed peoples." Into a Negro district in Los Angeles, for instance, Mexicans and Japanese are moving without experiencing hostility and are establishing friendly relations. A fellow feeling toward the Mexicans and Japanese exists among the Negroes before the former races arrive in this district. The Mexicans and Japanese come as persecuted races and hence with favorable responses already aroused regarding them. Whatever induces a person to put himself sympathetically into the experiences of oppressed peoples and to live through their problems, longings, and disillusionments, stimulates him to take them into his own universe of discourse to identify them as being human like himself, and to excuse their racial peculiarities.

60. I stopped in a market run by a Japanese to get some fruit. The proprietor was waiting on an American lady. The incident ran like this, -the woman said, " Charley, have you any nice lettuce? " " Yes," he said, " these heads are five cents and these are seven." " Oh," said the woman, " you should sell those sevencent heads for a nickel. I will take this one for a nickel," and picked it out of the seven-cent lot. He shrugged his shoulders and said nothing. The nicely dressed lady then asked about peaches, felt of the different grades, and then picked up a peach and bit into it, asked the various prices, then took a dime's worth, picking out the peaches and putting them into the sack. This American lady who was well dressed and appeared to have means then proceeded to pick over the tomatoes in the same way, taking a dime's worth, then the green peppers, finally buying something like twenty-two cents worth and picked out every article she bought, and then to end it, she reached over and took a couple of apricots and said, " Charley, do you mind if I give my little girl these? "

When I came home in the evening, I told this experience to my two boys and my wife at the table; and say, the boys did get the point and have on several occasions since asked if I had ever seen

( 89) any more of those " finicky " women. That experience has made me more tolerant with the Japanese.[9]

61. I have been isolated more or less from races other than my own. Toward the Mexicans I have a very friendly feeling. Although I do not understand their language and do not have the same standard of living as they, I have a friendly feeling toward them. I have been in contact with them many times and have had a chance to study their ways.

My feeling toward them has been a sympathetic superior feeling. They seem like grown-up children leading a simple life. One always has a friendly feeling toward people one wishes to help. They seem so simple and helpless. The Mexicans are very harmless if you handle them right and play upon their interests and emotions.

The Mexicans have been held back for so long that they seem to lack the ability to progress. Anything that we can do to aid them to progress, I think, will be of benefit to this country. They form a part of our working class, and society should protect and educate them.

The newspapers and other circulars have put out much propaganda against the Japanese and other foreigners, but why not against the Mexicans? There has been no need. With a little care these people are easy to get along with.

I feel that these people are now a part of our country and that we can either make or break them as we see fit. One cannot help but feel friendly toward them. Friendly feeling toward them seems to be the best way to control them.[10]

62. The fundamental reason for my prejudice in previous years toward the red man has been that I haven't understood him and his civilization. I remember distinctly that in the grammar grades I was taught that he was selfish and of a very suspicious nature - a man to be feared and dreaded. Too, that he was a menace, a personality within himself, with traditions incapable of assimilation in our life and development. However, because I as a child was interested in him as a wearer of beautifully colored beads and as a person very different from myself, so now I find him interesting as a character and fellow citizen. I began to wonder, to read, to inquire about him. I found that it is the Americans that are really the causes of his keeping within his shell and of his seeming distrust of us, etc. The average American has shut his

( 90) door and refused to help him to better culture and civilization. He has taken his land, given him small payments and merely an opportunity to live. I feel very deeply sorry for him. I don't mean that I would be willing to eat, sleep, or drink with any Indian that comes along but there are many who have had the best possible advantages and made more of them than any of us do many times, and it is those regardless of color or creed, I now would be willing to treat as an equal in every way. True, the Indian is offered an equal chance for education, but not for advancement after he has finished.[11]

63. Having been reared in a very religious home, where little or no conversation leading to race hatred was ever expressed, I did not, as many people, form any antagonistic feeling toward any race. However, the way a person has been reared aside, he cannot help noticing the good and bad actions of some races. When I grew older, I was always attracted to races who were experiencing unkindly treatment from more fortunate races. I suppose I felt this more keenly, being a member of a less favored race, than other races having less race hatred to deal with. Somehow I always wanted to help members of races who were experiencing any form of race oppression. Many a day I would sit and wonder just what line of work I could enter in order to be of service to fallen humanity or the delinquent of any race. Finally, I worked as a volunteer in the County Charities. This position threw me in contact with many races who were suffering, mostly from lack of a square deal, either because of low wages which were inadequate for a living wage, or because of lack of adjustment to- American mode of living. In the case histories some very pathetic accounts are given which cause one to feel that more detailed study of races should be given before any sharp conclusion be drawn as to inferiority or superiority. I came to this conclusion while teaching in the S. Valley. In my school most of the students were Mexicans, chiefly of the low type. Their parents spoke little English and knew little of American modes of living. In spite of their oddities, I visited them as regularly as I did other parents of my pupils. I became interested in all their family life, the births, the deaths, and marriages of the different Mexican families. I always showed them that I was interested not only in their children but in their home life as well. Before the end of the term many of the Mexican women were able to give short talks at the Parent-Teachers Association. From

( 91) these and other facts not mentioned I began to form a very kindly attitude toward the so-called low type of Mexican people. I like the Mexicans, and they like me. Parting with my Mexican friends was very pathetic and an experience I shall never forget .[12]

Noncompetitive Achievement Traits. - Noncompetitive achievement traits bring admiration, and admiration leads to friendliness. We admire, applaud, and " go out to " a person who achieves, providing his success does not detract from our status. The achievement of a few persons is credited to the whole race; and friendly feelings are engendered toward that race, providing there is no competition with one's own race or nation involved.

In the North, friendliness toward the Negro has increased until recently. This good will centered around the progress that the Negro has been making in the South. It continued until after the Negro began to migrate north in considerable numbers. As long as the Negro progressed and remained noncompetitive as far as the North was concerned, northern good will increased. But when the competition of the Negro was felt in the North, then friendliness began to be supplanted by prejudice. " In such a city as Gary, therefore, there is a population which had every reason to hope that the restriction of immigration would aid, in a rapid upward forcing of its wage level, but which sees in every Negro arrival the threat of undoing the economic advantage derived from the immigration laws. The Negro thus becomes an economic as well as a social threat, and the feeling against him and his progeny is the feeling against the man who takes bread and butter out of one's mouth." [13] In the same way, friendship first for the Chinese and later for the Japanese grew on the Pacific Coast as long as these people were industrious and thrifty, but noncompetitive. When their numbers and success made them an economic threat,

( 92) good will toward them decreased, and ill will sprang into action.

64. My admiration for the English is great, particularly for their empire-building qualities. I think of that island upon which England is located and then of the world-embracing sway of English institutions and language, and rejoice. The solid achievements of the race brings off my hat, and excuses to me their frailties. They are not competitors of the United States so much as co-laborers, and their achievements make our own the surer. I'm for the English.[14]

65. I have long deplored the attitude of the South toward the Negro. When I have come in contact with a Negro, I have told him so. The rise of the Negro from slavery and his struggle against gross indignities and lynchings has fired my imagination, until I have sometimes felt that the Negro has put all other races to shame, even including the white race. The achievements of a man like Booker T. Washington have been a miracle. I did not think that anything could overcome my love for the colored race, but two months ago the property across the street was sold to a Negro, and later I received a notice from a Negro organization asking for a square deal and consideration of their wishes to live wherever they were able to buy property. This is too much for me.[15]

This discussion gives a clue to methods of overcoming social distance. It indicates how people in general possess personal-behavior patterns that need only to be released in order to produce friendliness. It also gives evidence that there are certain types of constructive-behavior traits that immigrants in general may manifest. These act as normal stimuli for releasing friendly patterns of action on the part of nations.


1. Analyze all your experiences with the members of any race toward whom you feel distinctly friendly.

2. Put yourself in the experiences of any race which has been persecuted, and compare its reactions toward another persecuted race with its reactions toward the persecuting race.

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3. Compare similar culture traits, kindness and geniality traits, dependability and justice traits, persecution and oppression traits, and noncompetitive achievement traits in regard to their relative importance as race friendliness generators.

4. Can you name and describe any set of factors not mentioned in this chapter which leads to race friendliness?

5. Compare the factors leading to race friendliness with those that are origins of race prejudice.

6. Prepare a fifteen-minute radio talk designed to augment race friendliness.


BOGARDUS, E. S., Essentials of Americanization, 3rd Edition. Jesse R. Miller Press, 1923.

GAVIT, JOHN P., Americans by Choice, Chap. I. Harper, 1922.

 INQUIRY, THE, All Colors. New York, 1926.

------, And Who is My Neighbor. New York, 1924.

PALMER, A. W., The Human Side of Hawaii, Chap. III. Pilgrim Press, 1924.

PRICE, M. T., Christian Missions and Oriental Civilizations, Chaps. IX, X. Shanghai, 1924.

RAVAGE, M. E., An American in the Making, Chaps. XX, XXI. Harper, 1917.

ROBERTS, PETER, The Problem of Americanization, Chap. III. Macmillan, 1920.


  1. Social Distance Studies.
  2. lbid.
  3. Social Distance Studies.
  4. Mexican Immigrant Survey of the Southwest.
  5. Social Distance Studies.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Mexican Immigrant Survey of the Southwest.
  8. Social Distance Studies.
  9. Pacific Coast Race Relations Survey.
  10. Mexican Immigrant Survey of the Southwest
  11. Social Distance Studies.
  12. Mexican lmmigrant Survey of the South west.
  13. Editorial, Christian Century, October 13, 1927.
  14. Social Distance Studies.
  15. Ibid.

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