Fundamentals of Social Psychology
Chapter 8: Isolation
Emory S. Bogardus
HAVING analyzed basic human nature, the discussion will now take up the fundamental phases of intersocial stimulation. This phenomenon, representing the humming centers of human activity, may be best approached from the lonely peaks of isolation. We consider only relative isolation, for absolute isolation is humanly unthinkable. We know of no human beings who have developed wholly outside intersocial stimulation.
ISOLATION VERSUS COMMUNICATION
Isolation exists in inverse proportion to the degree of communication. If there are no communicative symbols with their correlative meanings, if the communication symbols exist, but their operation has been blocked, there is isolation. Note the cry for communication in these "personals"from the London Times :
D. W. T.—Toronto. No letter—please write.—Dad.
Cynthe, dearest, your absence is distressing us; write to us immediately that we may know you are well.—Mother.
Joe.—Communicate with me.—Fred.
Toddy.—If you are anywhere in this wide, wide world write immediately to same address you left.—Jamie.
Even persons who have achieved fame and leadership report the röle of isolation in their lives. Note the following confession concerning isolation and its influence :
The dominantly sad note of my life may be designated by the one word, isolation. A country farm far from the village, ambition shared by no boys of my age; misunderstood by my father; the fitting school with classmates too advanced and mature for companionship; college, with only a few choice intimates and congenials ; the seminary, where I was suspected of heresy, which thus hindered associations or even broke those I had come to prize, as had also happened in my later college course; the years in Europe, where my
only friends were foreigners speaking an alien tongue and with no
one to advise or counsel; my interest in studies slowly shaping along lines
which very few in this country cared for; nearly a score of years after college
graduation before permanent and final settlement in the kind of academic chair I
wanted; the tragic death of my first wife and six-year-old daughter just after
reaching Worcester; the ten years of living alone that followed; the débacle of
my great hopes and plans for Clark University during its third year, the long
period of misunderstandings that followed; the uniqueness of our plan which set
us more or less apart; some odium sexicum, which began with the
publication of my Adolescence and was intensified by my introduction of
Freudianism into this country and by my teaching some of its essentials,
although with great reservations (a topic still practically taboo by the
American Psychological Association, which was organized in my house and of which
I was the first president) ; some acute experiences with the odium
theologicum which followed the publication of my Jesus, the Christ, in
the Light of Psychology; my genetic conception of the human soul as a
product of evolution like the body; the crust of diffidence that always had to
be broken through at
every public appearance.
PHASES AND CAUSES OF ISOLATION
I. Animal groups are isolated from one another. The food call of the mother hen bring no hungry kittens running to her; the cry of pain by a puppy produces no signs of sympathetic response on the part of the mother cat.
2. All animals, except the most developed, are isolated from human beings. Barring a few exceptions, as in the case of an occasional domesticated dog, the frightened call of the child arouses no response in animal creation. Of perhaps 150,000 species probably not more than fifty have been domesticated, that is, partly extricated from their isolation from mankind. Through force and kindness, individual members of these fifty species learn to respond favorably to human stimuli. Out of animal-human contacts a few crude symbols have acquired meaning for specific animals. But unless this process is begun very early in the life of an animal, such as the horse and other domesticated animals, it is not likely to succeed. The process of taming, in one sense, is that of bringing an animal out of this fundamental isolation, through patient teaching which often may include the use of force. The application of force creates fear-responses; rarely and only indirectly, attachment-responses.
3. Human beings who have been reared to a large extent apart from society furnish an excellent laboratory for the study of isolation phenomena. Casper Hauser is perhaps the best known of such individuals.
(91) While the data concerning him are not entirely satisfactory, being partly conceded in contradictory reports, it seems that he was about sixteen years of age when he appeared at Nuremburg (Germany). At birth he had been left on the doorstep of a Hungarian peasant's hut, and had been reared in strict seclusion from all human beings. He had been kept in a low dark cell on the ground, and had never seen the face of the man who brought him food. At the age of sixteen when he escaped from this solitary existence, he knew no German and understood but little that was said to him. He called both men and women Bua, and all animals Rosz. He paid little heed to what went on about him and recognized no social customs. It is reported that he burned his hand in the first fire which he saw, that he had no fear of being struck with a sword, but that the sound of a drum threw him into convulsive fear. He reacted to pictures and statuary as though they were alive, and was delighted by whistles and bright objects. Experts pronounced him idle, vain, but stupid, and autopsic examination revealed a small undeveloped, but otherwise normal brain.
We may now turn to cases of children who have been reared in the wilds. Myth and fact easily mingle in such accounts, but the "Irish boy" and the "girl of Songi," described by Rauber, may be accepted as true and illustrative.
The Irish boy, who after living with animals until sixteen years old, was examined by a gymnasium director of Amsterdam. His body was covered with hair, and his skin was so thick and insensible, that sharp objects such as thorns were not felt. He had lived with sheep and bleated like them. He was stolid, not self-conscious, and took no notice of people. Unlike the sheep with which he had lived, he was fierce and untamable.
The girl of Songi was found at about the age of nine. She came out of the forest of Chalons, carrying a club with which she killed a dog that attacked her. She climbed trees and ran across walls and roofs like a squirrel. She ate raw fish, loved to adorn herself with leaves and flowers, and adapted herself, only with great difficulty, to some of the simpler customs of human society. Her speech was limited to cries, although she later learned something of the French language. She never gave up the use of certain sounds, which had no meaning to others.
4. The prisoner locked in his cell or governed by the rule of silence tends to become both unsocial and anti-social. He is subject, first to mental distortion, and then to a disintegration of mind and of the whole personality. Often he becomes viciously antagonistic. Being literally thrown out of society, he angrily resents his situation and develops anti-social attitudes. An isolated prisoner thus is usually self-conscious, suspicious, emotional, and apt to become neurotic. Under solitary confinement, the individual's personality is likely to go to pieces and violent insanity result. It is such a psychical appreciation of a prisoner's state of isolation which led Thomas Mott Osborne  to substitute sociability for isolation, and which has produced marvelously fine results in reclaiming convicts to a normal life. Now and then an individual does not respond, usually because the anti-social effects of isolation have become fixed habits. Even when a prisoner is released, the convict stigma isolates him from normal society. Says Darrow, an experienced lawyer in criminal cases :
The criminal has always been met by coldness and hatred that have made him lose his finer feelings, have blunted his sensibilities, and have taught him to regard all others as his enemies and not his friends.
5. A person who has lived his whole life on the Fiji Islands, in Timbuctu, or in a mountain fastness of the Andes, is isolated from modern civilization, except as civilization may be brought to him by a missionary or a trader. Isolation in this spatial or geographic sense has been common; during all the eons of human life on the earth excepting the last century physical distance has been a complete barrier.
When direct human communication was limited to a range of less than a mile, physical isolation ruled, but now that instantaneous communication may take place over thousands of miles, space has been almost conquered. When illiteracy prevailed and travel was scarcely heard of, spatial isolation was everything; but now that education, the press, and travel are common, the social handicaps of space are almost negligible. Now when one's friend departs on a long journey, even around the world, it is possible to call after him, and if need be, to bring him speeding back homeward. Where civilization has reached, the telegraph, telephone, radio, printing press, and the railroad have overcome spatial isolation.
6. Pioneering is a special form of spatial isolation. The pioneer is one
( 93) who is separated by distance from his home group. Geographically and psychically he is partly detached from civilization. The pioneer is one who in adventure is ahead of the multitude, but who in spatial isolation is temporarily behind. He is doubly isolated—from his parent-group, and from the strangers he comes in contact with. Frontier people are generally noted for their hospitality. Anyone who has travelled in the mountains or in any frontier region has been struck with the welcome he has received, and the genuine pleasure shown in his society. Isolation has left the pioneer hungry for social contacts, hence the extra friendliness he displays.
7. The individual born deaf and dumb, or who is bedridden with an infectious and chronic disease, or who has lost both his arms and legs in an accident illustrates what may be called physiological isolation.
The individual who, born deaf, does not learn to speak is apt to be considered dumb. A large percentage of such cases have been found not to be "dumb" at all, but simply isolated by deafness. Their vocal apparatus is normal except that it has not been stimulated. Individuals of this type, however, need not be fundamentally isolated under modern conditions, for the current means of communication, such as newspapers, radio-telephony, the scientific journals, the Braille system, and the stimulation of many friendships, may be theirs. Helen Keller is the most remarkable case on record of the rescue of an individual from an apparently hopeless state of physiological isolation.
8. Feeble-mindedness and similar low mental levels isolate. The idiot or congenitally defective and the insane are all precluded from normal mental stimulation.
9. Groups isolate. Every human group is isolated to a degree from every other group—family from family, city from city, nation from nation, race from race. Whatever integrates isolates. Group organization creates a fellow feeling within the ranks, but isolates those within from those without. Furthermore groups develop heritages which isolate. Group heritage, inculcated by deed and word, look and oath into the lives of individuals when children, creates different standards of belief and action that are as walls between individuals.
No one joins a secret society without feeling himself a little cut-off from non-fraternity friends, and they feel the same about him. Secrecy stirs the imagination of outsiders until social barriers become magnified a thousand-fold. Hence, secret societies clash with democracy. In fact, it may be seriously questioned whether secret societies have a place in a
( 94) true democracy. Groups isolate. The strike "cuts off the employer-workman relation, while the boycott suspends the contact of buyer and seller." 
10. Nationalism isolates. Nationalists often work up a super-loyalty which blinds them to the virtues of other groups and the vices of their own. The gravest charge against an otherwise praiseworthy loyalty, namely, patriotism, is that it helps create a dangerous isolation between the best people of different nations. They are led into believing false and injurious charges against other peoples ; other nationals are likewise misled until a mutual isolation results, with misunderstanding, prejudice, hatred, and war following in its train. Such prejudices may become traditional, as in the case of the French and German national heritages with their mutually disjunctive attitudes and loyalties. A world organization supported by a world community spirit would do away with much of the existing international isolation.
One of the best instances of national isolation is the effect upon missionaries' families of living in a foreign country. A loyal American missionary in India, upon returning recently to the United States on a furlough says:
The American ways were new and unnatural. Our children cried to go back to India. They were lonely because they had nothing in common with those about them. They felt that they were unwanted here. All the things they had learned to love through long acquaintance and association were many miles away.
11. Race loyalty likewise isolates. The greater the visible differences between races, the greater the barriers. For self protection each race builds about itself a tradition of greatness. By dwelling at length on the brave deeds of its own heroes and by magnifying the faults of other races, each race develops an isolating self-conceit. Together race pride and race prejudice put up almost insuperable human barriers.
12. Religions isolate. The Mohammedan and Christian are widely divergent ; the historical cleavages between Catholic and Protestant are many; while fundamentalist and liberalist among Protestants are separated. People of different faiths have such different beliefs and customs that they do not feel at home in each other's company. Note the following experience of a Protestant attending a Catholic service for the first time.
The service began and the congregation rose and knelt at intervals apparently in unison. I remained quietly seated and did not feel uncomfortably
(95) conspicuous until I carelessly leaned against the fingers of the lady behind me. It was then that I decided to do as the others. I kept my head bowed and watched the movement of the congregation as well as I could, but stood or knelt just one lap behind the others. Once when they rose from a kneeling to a sitting position I stood bolt upright in my haste to do as the others. During the remainder of the service I sat miserably conscious that those around me knew that a stranger was present.
Within a given religious group, a change of religious views will create isolation and separation. A young minister gives this experience :
I once subscribed to a certain theological dogma and took certain vows with all earnestness but with little thought of my future mental development. I then took a course of study which broadened my views considerably. I could not consider myself an honest man if I proclaimed doctrines I no longer believed, so I closed my eyes to consequences and proclaimed from the pulpit my new views. The results were immediate ; at first, I was "waited on by the brethren"; then I was the topic of conversation where elderly ladies sipped tea. I was anathematized by the more "devout" of the congregation until I resigned my pulpit for the good and harmony of the church, and moved to another city, but continued membership in the denomination. My reputation followed me. People whom I had counted on as friends "passed by on the other side." I was looked upon as" a criminal. I felt as if I looked like one. I felt guilty, although I knew I was guilty only of thinking. I was a stranger among old friends, and lonesomeness settled over me. I was not only isolated by their actions but gradually came to the point where I shunned them. Finally, a complete break was made and I made a new ecclesiastical connection.
13. Occupations isolate. The minister or priest is isolated from other persons, for he thinks in theological terms. He cannot do exactly as his parishioners do, for they will lose respect for him as their religious leader. The motorman works in the isolation of "Don't speak to the motorman." The trapper works "vowed to perpetual silence." Each occupation and profession builds for its members a wall out of its special ethics, view-points, terminology. Occupations result in occupational biases, minds, and hence occupational divisions.
Cornelia Stratton Parker's experiences in "working with the working women" illustrates many phases of occupational isolation. In going to work in a factory, she began preparations by purchasing "large green earrings, a bar pin of platinum and brilliants, a goldy box of powder (two shades), a lip stick." She faded a green tam-o'shanter so that it would not look so new, dug an old blue serge dress from the rag bag, wore spats that "just missed being mates as to shade, and a button off one." Then, she chewed gum hard and kept at it, but found that while earrings and gum help, the occupational distinction in the use of English gave her
( 96) away. She could not rid herself of her English and say regarding a friend, "She aint livin' at that address no more."
Within occupations there are sub-occupational groups, and isolation exists between these. A young lady about to take a new position as a stenographer discloses this phase of occupational isolation :
I approached the huge office building with awe and a feeling of fear. There were many women and an equal number of men at work in the long room into which the manager directed me. It seemed that all eyes were upon me as I entered that room. I did not know where to lay my wraps, or where to go next. After I had been introduced to my new "boss," I had some difficulty in getting the right kind of typewriter. After I did get started to work, I could feel the curious glances of the office force upon me. I never came to feel entirely at home in this group, because of their ways to which I could not get adjusted.
14. Ownership of property isolates. Great wealth throws around a person a retinue of servants, iron fences, and conventional rules which cut him off from the middle classes and the masses. One thus fails to appreciate the problems of the majority of mankind; this lack of appreciation is isolation.
The absence of property is also isolating. A confirmed pauper living in a country poorhouse or even a laborer with a large family living in a "shack" are cut off from many normal social contacts. While such persons have access to newspapers, a few friends, some public meetings, they do not meet many cultured people, they cannot travel much, and they are denied all higher educational advantages and contacts.
15. Differences in temperament isolate. "She is not my type," illustrates the point. "I simply cannot stand his careless ways" is another instance. Extreme temperamental differences are supported by habits which hinder social contacts. A reactionary Republican "boss" and an extreme Socialist have developed such different mental habits that they commonly misunderstand one another completely; and misunderstanding is always isolation. A militant Mohammedan and a peace-at-any-price Christian or an old-time capitalist and a radical labor union organizer, are in the same category.
16. Illiteracy isolates. Lack of education is a bar to breadth of viewpoint, to contact with the classics, to accurate thinking. The untrained person can not appreciate the attitudes of the trained mind. Persons who have not had the advantages of education, culture, and travel are set off from those who have had and made use of these opportunities, thus creating viewpoints that are more or less characteristic.
17. Arbitrary social barriers, based on birth, position, wealth prevent democratic social contacts. The dividing lines must not be overstepped; isolation is officially cultivated. "Unclean, unclean," is cried in scornful glance if not in word; and sometimes taboo is transmitted by facial expression. A young man living in one part of town had been invited by an old-time friend to a party in another part of the same city, and reports :
I found that I knew all the boys and most of the girls, but I did not have anything in common, in a social sense, with any of them. They had been going to parties together, could talk dances, and scandals of the younger set. My old-time friend had outgrown her former ways and I could not talk much with her. I moved around a little trying to think of something to do or say. I felt as though I spoke a foreign tongue which none could understand; I was out of place and would have given the world to have been able to leave.
The boys who knew me occasionally looked at me and remarked something to their partners. I felt sometimes as though I were a shadow, so little did I have in common with the others. Again, I felt myself a strange animal, and at times it seemed as though my face would break under the strain of looking pleasant.
18. Leadership isolates. Any leader, by virtue of being such, suffers loss of contacts. Christ's greatest agony is found in part in the fact that "no one really understood the vastness of his thoughts and feelings, his spiritual loneliness was his extreme trial." An eminent judge recently reported that when he accepted a position on the bench he found it necessary to give up his intimate friendship with many attorneys in order not to be accused of partiality when these attorneys were representing clients in his court. This isolated situation became unbearable, and he finally compromised by keeping three or four close friends among attorneys and by refusing to permit them to try cases before him.
In another way leadership isolates, for a leader who is devoted to the tasks of his position must give undivided attention for days or even weeks at a time to the technical problems before him in order that he may discharge his duties well. The congressman at the Capitol partly loses contact with his constituents, while back home his political rival may be making many new contacts. He therefore must hurry "home" before an election in order to "rebuild his fences," in other words, to re-establish contacts. An election often resolves itself into a conflict of "contacts" on the part of the respective candidates ; the successful one is usually he who has made the most favorable contacts.
Leadership also isolates in that it tends to give the successful leader a sense of exaltation, and a certain aloofness. Aristocratic attitudes, not
( 98) to mention autocratic attitudes, beget isolation. The importance of a leader maintaining level contacts with the multitude, is at once apparent. High peaks of eminence, moreover, are often unduly singled out for attack, and thus are isolated.
19. Advancing years produce isolation. G. Stanley Hall reports :
As I advance in years there are few things I crave more and feel more keenly the lack of than companionship. The almost inevitable isolation of old age is hard to bear, and I think I now have no greater enjoyment than in occasional visitations by friends.
20. Social changes isolate. Parents often become isolated from their children, because a gulf forms between the child's life and the customs of the older generation. The dramatist and novelist have made classic this type of isolation in many works, but particularly in Sowerby's Rutherford and Son, and in Turgenieff's Fathers and Sons. Herein are accounts of the tragic struggles between the conservatism of parents and the radicalism of children. Americanization often isolates parents from their children:
"My children have grown up. They are educated, and the education given them by America has taken them from me. I speak English only as an untaught alien can speak it. But my children know all the slang phrases and they can even speak English with Negro, Irish, and Dutch dialects. They speak differently, they act differently, and when they come to visit me they come alone. They do not explain why they do not bring their friends, but I instinctively sense the reason. They should not fear. I would not cause them any embarrassment. But they too look upon their old father as an inferior, an alien, a roundhead—a bohunk.
The difference in viewpoint between the reactionary and the radical in politics, religion, or industry is almost impossible to overcome-even by discussion and reasoning. Everywhere habits are being built on the basis of "present" conditions, but these quickly become "past" conditions; habits hold the individual stationary while conditions change. Thus, he who was once liberal becomes conservative, and then reactionary. This form of isolation can only be overcome by the particular habit of making over habits.
A college alumnus returns to his alma mater and finds the same scenes, the familiar walks, the collegiate atmosphere, but suffers a distinct shock to discover "new faces set in old frames"; all the former students and nearly all the "beloved"instructors are gone; he feels lonely and isolated. A high school graduate leaves home and goes to college in a distant city. He testifies :
The students were so reserved; they had such a cold exterior. So for many, many weeks, I wandered around that dreary city of gray, clouded skies, hoping that some terrible event might befall me or someone I knew at home, so that I might be called back to my friends.
The immigrant's first days in a strange land are often filled with the pangs of isolation. Two experiences only will be cited ; the first is by an Italian immigrant who has become a distinguished American scholar, and the second is by a Swedish immigrant.
1. The next morning bright and early, leaving all my belongings with the barber, I started out in search of a job. I roamed about the streets, not knowing where or to whom to turn. That day and the next four days I had one loaf of bread each day for food, and at night, not having money with which to purchase shelter, I stayed on the recreation pier on Commercial Street (Boston). One night, very weary and lonely, I lay upon a bench and soon dozed off into a light sleep. The next thing I knew I cried out in bitter pain and fright. A policeman had stolen up to me very quietly and with his club had dealt me a heavy blow upon the soles of my feet. He drove me away, and I think I cried; I cried my first American cry. What became of me that night I cannot say. And the next day and the next—I just roamed aimlessly about the streets. Those first five days in America have left an impression upon my mind which can never be erased with the years.
2. I come from Sweden when I was eighteen years old. . . . We wrote me ant a mont' ago, I was comin, but when I got to Chicago, she wasn't at de train. Whew! maybe I wasn't scared! I walked round and round, den I sit down an' cried like a big boob. I fought I die. Den along come a woman an' put her hand on me shoulder, and ast me in Swedish what de matter was.... I told her about me ant, an' she say I go wid her. She take me dere. I had de address all right, but me ant was gon'—moved. Den I cry more, an' a whole lots of people come out. Dey say me ant gone way out nort', too far to go that night. One woman say I stay wid her if I sleep on floor. She say she fix bed for me. Dey was so kind, but I cry all night. I t'ink of ole country so far away.
Imposed and prolonged isolation from other persons causes individuals to go frantic. The importance of social contacts is seen in Taylor's summary of the effects of isolation.
The solitude of nature's fastnesses at the Poles, the solitude of the mountain tops, or of being alone in a little boat on the ocean, or walking over a vast prairie or moor at nightfall, these are always terrifying experiences to men, even the bravest of them, and to women more so and children most of all. Shepherds go mad shut in on solitary heights. And yet there is no solitude worse than the indifference of a great city thronged with people.
Let it be noted that sometimes temporary and self-imposed isolation is beneficial, for solitude is essential to reflection. A person needs to alter-
100) -nate between solitude and social stimulation. After a time he tires of
anything, no matter how good. To be with others continuously, even loved ones,
produces fatigue and a lack of appreciation. He who spends all his time in a
round of social engagements ultimately grows stupid in fundamental ideas. At any
event, intersocial stimulation requires that a person seek intervals of
isolation for purposes of reflection.
In conclusion it may be indicated that isolation is cumulative. The members of any competitive group, race, nation, clique, or "ring," are not only isolated, but deliberately foster a social system which promotes and magnifies isolation. We who would love our neighbors as ourselves maintain "systems of social control that actually prevent us from doing it," declares a distinguished leader of religious and social thought.  These systems whether national, religious, or industrial often directly generate prejudice, put appeals to the feelings at a premium, and spread exaggerated teachings concerning the merits of the respective groups—thus promoting isolation.
Isolation, however, disappears as means of communication develop and begin to
function. In a physical sense, the recent expansion of radio telephony has
annihilated much isolation ; the radio keeps the aged, the sick, and disabled in
touch with life, as well as broadcasts weather reports, news events, musical
concerts in ways that supplement the use of the newspaper, the automobile, the
train, and other fast, but relatively speaking, slower means of communication.
In a social sense education defies isolation. Broad visions lead to contacts. In
1918 and 1919 President Wilson made commendable pleas for open national contacts
that would do away with secret agreements secretly arrived at and with other
forms of international isolation.
1. Isolation is absence of stimulation and communication.
2. Basic forms of social isolation are found between animal groups, between human and animal groups, and between different human groups, such as races, nations, castes, religious bodies, and cliques.
3. Isolation is produced by differences in temperament, by illiteracy, by prejudices, by artificial social barriers, by achieving leadership, by social changes such as migration.
4. Temporary and self-imposed isolation is necessary to reflection.
5. Isolation is cumulative.
1. What is isolation?
2. Why are animal groups more isolated from each other than are human groups?
3. What does Caspar Hauser's life show?
4. Give a new illustration of spatial isolation?
5. How are pioneering and isolation related?
6. Explain : Group organization isolates.
7. How does patriotism foster isolation?
8. Why has religion been guilty of creating so much isolation?
9. Explain the doubly isolating effects of prejudice.
10. Give a new illustration of the statement that social changes create isolation.
11. How does wealth isolate?
12. Explain : Temporary isolation is needful.
1. In what fundamental way is the "stranger" isolated?
2. Who is the more isolated, a sympathetic person or an intellectual person?
3. In what ways are hoboes isolated?
4. How is it that isolation in cities may be greater than in rural districts?
5. In what ways is college life isolated from the everyday life of the world?
6. Explain : "Whoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god."
7. In what ways is the isolation of the hermit and the prophet different?
8. In what ways is the only child isolated?
9. What is the relation of segregation to isolation?
ASSIGNMENTS AND READINGS.
Bohannon, E. W., Pedagogical Seminary V : 475-95.
Covat, R., Une Forme du mal du siecle (Paris, 1904).
Feurbach, P., Caspar Hauser, Trans. by Linberg (London, 1834).
Gillette, J. M., Rural Sociology (Macmillan, 1922), Ch. XXV.
Neter, Eugene, Das einzige Kind und seine Erziehung (München, 1914).
Park and Burgess, Introduction to the Science of Sociology (University of Chicago Press, 1921), Ch. IV.
Semple, E. C., Influences of Geographic Environment (Holt, 1911), Ch. XIII.
Tredgold, A. F., Mental Deficiency (Macmillan, 1920), 279-305.
Whitely, Opal S., The Story of Opal (Atlantic Monthly Press, 1920).