Fundamentals of Social Psychology
Chapter 2: Affective Nature
Emory S. Bogardus
HUMAN nature has many important phases, such as the affective and the cognitive, which are often complementary. Affective nature, the theme of this chapter, includes the feelings, emotions, sentiments, desires.
Human nature possesses a tonal quality, somewhat after the fashion perhaps of a musical instrument, only far more complex and significant. If all goes well the human organism experiences a pleasant tone or feeling. If the environment impinges harshly upon the organism, then a disagreeable tone is experienced. An unbroken continuance of favorable or unfavorable circumstances may cease to bring out the organic tonal quality. If the environment has few new stimuli and arouses no new responses then the human organism lapses into a chronic state of disagreeableness, or ennui. If the environmental factors repeatedly defeat the organism at every turn then an essentially unpleasant organic tone becomes chronic and is accompanied by cynicism and fatalism. If circumstances present new problems from time to time the organism is likely to be stimulated to its highest efficiency.
The tones of psychic nature are as old as psychic nature itself. They appear almost simultaneously with the causal stimuli. They are the first or advance responses of the organism to specific stimuli. A type of stimuli which as a rule has been favorable in the past to the organism or to the race or to both produces an agreeable tone in the organism. If some one were to suggest to me a visit to the dentist's chair, I should experience an unpleasant tone, providing my previous experiences have been exceedingly painful. The stimulus releases an habitual reaction that has been built up on the basis of painful dental experiences, and I experience disagreeable feelings again. On the other hand if some one were to suggest to me a beefsteak fry in the Rockies, I should experience a highly agreeable psychic tone, providing I have enjoyed several such occasions.
This tonal character of one's nature seems to give a quicker-than-thought evaluation to a proposed activity upon the basis of past experience. It
( 12) was this which Plato undoubtedly had in mind when he said that there are two counsellors in one's bosom, one is pleasure and the other is pain.
A pleasurable feeling is the beginning of a whole response of the organism and indicates that in the history of the organism or the species, the act which the given stimulus is calling forth has been helpful. The pleasurable tone is a blind guide, implying but not necessarily proving the present value of a proposed response. The fact that a certain type of responses has been helpful or harmful in the past indicates that in all probability this type will continue to be helpful or harmful. If, however, conditions have changed, the tonal voice may prove a misleader. Before he responds to his tonal or feeling guidance, it is necessary, therefore, for a person to notice whether or not the main factors in a given social situation have changed.
People are alike in their tonal responses because they have had about the same fundamental experiences of gain and loss. In the history of the human species, certain ways of doing have proved favorable to race development ; and others, unfavorable. Advantage is accompanied by agreeable tones or feelings, and disadvantage by a disagreeable tonal quality, ranging from a sense of complete loss (sorrow) to one of complete energization (angry determination). Upholders of race prejudice and race pride should observe that all races irrespective of color are characterized under similar circumstances by the same psychic tones or feelings. Social traditions have developed variations, but after all, the white, yellow, and black races alike experience joy, sorrow, and anger when responding to the respective types of stimuli.
The feeling or tonal qualities developed earlier than thinking in the species. The feelings have longer roots than ideas. They are more definitely a part of the inner core of personality. They have helped to make personality, long before thinking reached its full development, either in the individual or in the race. It is difficult to argue down the feelings.
Again, feeling is not on the plane of thinking. It is not in the same class of phenomena. Thinking is superior in quality to feeling in that it can describe and analyze feeling, but it is inferior in that it can rarely overcome feeling. If one has been taught throughout the earlier years of life that thirteen is an unlucky number, it is with difficulty in later years that one can throw off the feeling response that thirteen had better be avoided. Years of thinking to the contrary do not always succeed in overcoming feeling. An idea which is thrown against the feelings by way of argument
( 13) does not meet them on their plane. It would seem that the best way to cope with the feelings is to stimulate counter feelings.
Another type of inherited response is the emotional. An emotion, may be considered a complex of feeling responses. It is usually accompanied by marked activity of the glandular system and hence is related to the autonomic neural system as well as to the central neural system. It may be accompanied not only by muscular responses but also by special activity of both the duct and the ductless glands, that is, in the case of anger, for example, there may be not only clenched fists, but also perspiration, and marked activity by the adrenals. An emotion is a complete organic disturbance. It arises when the organized inherited impulses or the habitual responses are blocked. Whenever an obstacle appears in the path of a human tendency a disturbance occurs, accompanied by affective manifestations. In a way, an emotion is a heightened affective phase of a mental crisis. Whenever a conflict in the central neural system takes place, an emotional disturbance occurs ; when no conflict exists, ennui is likely to ensue. Emotions and ennui are the opposite feeling poles of personality. It may also be said that ennui is the dead center between the extremes represented by the joyful and the sorrowful feeling responses. Angry emotion accompanies the conflict stages of a crisis when an individual is struggling against obstacles. The function of anger is apparently that of energizing the individual so that he may overcome obstructions in the path of his tendencies. Anger is clearly a combatant emotion, but it becomes transformed into joyful or sorrowful responses when the given conflict begins to eventuate into gain or loss for the individual as judged by the individual.
A joyful response full of animation and expressions of surplus energy marks the more or less sudden realization of some important personal desire. A sorrowful response indicates the individual's realization of defeat, at least temporary, in some of his aims ; while remorse, forlornness, pessimism, fatalism are permanent expressions of defeated desires. The joyful tone of the human organism accompanies a general expansion of the individual's powers—his heart beats faster, circulation and respiration increase, and the organism is actually larger; while a sorrowful tone accompanies a general organic shrinking. Joyfulness is accompanied by a
( 14) reckless organic offensive type of attitude ; while sorrowfulness is paralleled by a retiring defenselessness.
Fear is an emotional response, which occurs whenever the individual realizes that his life, his possessions, or his loved ones are in great danger. Fear is an emotional response of a defensive nature and is closely associated with the desire for security. Fear may easily be acquired and developed into a standard set of habitual responses. That which is peculiarly strange naturally causes the individual to shrink away or to assume a defensive attitude.
As concentrations of feeling tones, the emotions often run to extremes and are expressed in wild, blind discharges of energy or possibly in a more or less complete paralysis of organic activity. For example, anger results in concentrated but irrational outbursts of activity or it may completely block all motor activity ; while sorrow usually tends to produce only impotence.
One of the most elemental of emotional responses, basic to joy, sorrow, and even anger, is sympathy. As the term implies, sympathy means "feeling with," and it may be regarded as a generic social tone of all higher organic life. An example of the expression of an elemental form of sympathetic emotion is the immediate and appropriate response of the brood of chickens to the warning cry of the mother hen. As a result of sympathetic emotion, the vigorous crying of a baby is followed often by the simultaneous wailing on the part of all nearby infants, even when they apparently cannot have the slightest conception of the cause of the crying of the first child. For the same reason a scream of terror on the part of an adult evokes a similar pang on the part of bystanders, although the latter do not know the cause of the scream. By virtue of sympathetic emotion, anger provokes anger. If the parent or teacher spoken to angrily is able only by a great effort to keep angry feelings from arising, how much less is a child able to control angry response when spoken to in an angry tone. The wise parent, or teacher speaks authoritatively, but not angrily.
The characteristic of "feeling with" others varies in degree with individuals and circumstances. In an extreme form it often decreases personal efficiency. It is unfortunate, for example, for a surgeon to be over-sympathetic. At the other extreme a want of sympathy permits one's egoistic, selfish impulses to run riot. Sympathy enables the individual to understand the experiences, attitudes, and behavior of other people. While its generic nature contributes to self-sacrifice and unselfish living, it may be
( 15) used by the shrewd in highly selfish ways. Through sympathy one can learn to understand other people, and then by playing upon their sympathy, gain their confidence and take advantage of them. Courtship is often characterized by this abuse of sympathy, and many hasty and unwise marriages are to be explained in this way. Politicians often acquire an unsavory reputation by overmuch appeal to the sympathy of people.
When an important issue is to be settled, the party which is successful in enlisting the sympathies of the public possesses a great advantage. The sympathies often lead to erratic behavior. Inasmuch as they, like the feelings, are not always in accord with the cognitive phases of mental life, they may be expressed in strange, irrational, and at times in unreliable ways. Sympathy does not always connote dependable conduct. Perhaps the most conspicuous social characteristic of sympathy is its tendency to go out to the under dog in a conflict. It is also commonly allied with the old, the tried, and the true. It is a gigantic stabilizing force, but oftentimes it adds too much stability. Occasionally it is so closely attached to outworn habits and customs that it constitutes a stumbling block to progress. Nevertheless every new reform measure tries to win the permanent sympathy of the people. In fact, it must win these, if it is to achieve real success. Sympathetic feelings "always follow activities, and if the new activities can be established long enough feeling is sure in time to give them sanction”. In this way new social values may be established and social attitudes changed and improved.
Emotions tend to become organized in relation to personal values, and may then be referred to as sentiments. For example, there is the sentiment of admiration, or a certain extension of one's personality toward another person who manifests fine qualities of behavior. It always involves admirer and admired ; it implies the expression of a measure of curiosity and wonder, or self-abasement, and also of being responsive to the person for whom admiration is experienced. A leader who is genuinely, successful must gain the permanent admiration of other persons. Admiration plus fear constitutes awe; and awe with the sense of indebtedness leads to reverence—the highest religious sentiment.
Closely allied to admiration is respect. It involves more judgment and less emotion, and hence is more permanent than admiration. Respect is
( 16) perhaps the most rationalized sentiment. Self respect means that one has given thought to his behavior and has justified it in the light of social standards. Without self respect it is almost impossible for one to maintain the respect of other persons, for by suggestion one's attitudes toward one's self influence the attitudes of others. Respect for another person means that one has analyzed the activities of the other person and approved them. The available evidence seems to show that McDougall  may be mistaken in assuming that we always respect those who respect themselves and that our respect for other persons is always a sympathetic reflection of their self respect. It is usually true that others must respect themselves before we will truly respect them, but if the social standards of others are below our own or if their dependableness falls short of our own ideal of dependableness, respect for them fails to develop.
There is a mild sentiment which arises out of sympathy for other persons but which does not result in positive sacrifice for others ; this sentiment is commonly known as pity. The person who pities usually feels that he is definitely separated by some barrier from the one who is pitied. Pity may be regarded as a differentiated form of sympathy which is held in check by a feeling of superiority, of inability to render aid, or of the impractability of giving aid. Pity rarely instigates activity but it may stay ruthless or vengeful action.
When a person finds himself depreciated or when he falls below the standards which others expect of him, his normal reaction is shame. To protect himself from such an experience, he is apt to submit unflinchingly to severe discipline. The group or the leaders in the group will often capitalize a person's aversion to shame in order to secure his otherwise unattainable support of either a worthy or unworthy cause.
When native impulses are closely organized and egoism has become standardized, an exaggerated sense of self-feeling easily becomes stimulated into the emotion of jealousy. Wherever invidious comparisons are made in one's own field of activity, jealousy easily flares up. The suitor is "jealous" of all rivals, because somebody whom he is willing to die for is in danger of being won by other persons. The egoistic parent is sensitive regarding the success of the companions of his children, for he does not want his children to be outshone. He is especially jealous of those persons whom his children listen to more than to him, for thereby his own opinions are being flouted. The egoistic jealousy of artists, débutantes, prima donnas, and others, "painters of the limelight and wooers of public favor," comes from their having hinged their lives on applause. When
( 17) that applause is transferred, their lives are flattened out entirely, except as jealousy blazes up.
As a rule jealousy narrows personality, lowers one's social standing, and cuts down one's usefulness. In the long run one is justified in being "jealous" only for his character, for the character of other persons and of social institutions.
A more aggressive but often subtler type of sentiment than jealousy is revenge. It arises when a person feels that he or someone in whom he is interested has been grievously injured and when the alleged offender does not make what is considered adequate amends. It is fitful, flaring high and dying down quickly, or it may smolder for years and break out in unexpected ways. It demands at least "an eye for an eye," and because of its emotional nature it is likely to overrun its goal and to exact a double portion of atonement. Furthermore it invites retribution, arousing furious emotional reactions on the part of the persons against whom it is directed. Thus when the vindictive attempt to secure justice, they use methods which prolong the justice-securing processes indefinitely and inflict serious injustices.
Revenge easily becomes generalized, and organized into group reactions which assume socially deep-seated and long term proportions, as in the case of blood feuds. The development of courts of justice has met the general need which is served by vengeance ; and consequently the overt and group-organized expressions of the sentiment are losing their original function, although still persisting tenaciously. Vengeance blazes up as in the case' of lynchings; it also holds a concealed place in many lives as evidenced in class and race prejudices.
Sentiments, diametrically opposed, are hate and love. Hate is an organization of emotional energy against a person or a group believed to be hostile. It differs from revenge and jealousy in containing less pure feeling, and in being more rationally organized. It is also more openly expressed ; it does not cover itself up, except for conventional reasons. It stages open warfare and declares publicly its reasons. It is a long-lived, ingrained sentiment that functions unfortunately in behalf of narrow loyalties as distinguished from larger ideals. It hinders the progress of both its subject and its object. It is an ominous element in race prejudice. Its constructive value appears when it is directed not against people as such, but against evil behavior of any person and any group.
Love is a conserving, stabilizing, and yet tumultous sentiment of unmeasured power. In its more primitive, elemental nature it may be made up largely of sex impulses, and consequently it may easily lead to license.
( 18) A higher form is romantic love, which prompts one to great undertakings and sacrifices in behalf of the one who is loved. The primitive nature of romantic love is demonstrated by its fickleness. It may lead, however, to conjugal love which possesses remarkable qualities of endurance. The strength of conjugal love develops out of the fact that husbands and wives have common experience of great joys and sorrows. It is particularly in the suffering together of husband and wife that fitful romantic love becomes transformed into strong, deep, and abiding conjugal love.
Maternal love is the keenest, deepest, and most concentrated form of the love of one person for another. The love of a mother for her child is the most enduring; it persists despite continued gross neglect and even of utterly despicable conduct on the part of the son or daughter. Paternal love is far less intense and permanent than maternal ; it is more akin to fraternal love. Filial love is often strongly expressed in childhood and adolescence; it may then subside but be revived in the later years of life and assume its earlier strength, gladdening parental hearts.
Consanguineal love ranges from the close attachment that is characteristic of fraternal love, to the affective elements in the brotherhood-of-man principle. It frequently takes on idealistic forms, and easily extends beyond blood relationships, producing the highest bonds of friendship, as of him "who sticketh closer than a brother." Consanguineal love leads to the most dependable types of loyalty. In it lies the energizing power for socializing the world.
Repeated inability to respond to moderate environmental stimuli creates in time a somewhat turbulent state known as desire. If the organism is unable after repeated attempts to secure the object of desire, then a chronic unpleasant tone results. Desire, declared Lester F. Ward, is painful. He asserted that the sensation must be a disagreeable one because the organism struggles to end it. The reasoning is hardly complete. Many of the objects of desire involve an expansion of the organism in definitely sought directions. The desire for wealth if once gratified maintains itself, not because it is painful but rather because wealth gives a person increased control over things and people. This control results in an expansion of the person's sense of the "me" and particularly of the "mine." It secures him an increased degree of attention from and perhaps admiration
( 19) of other persons. Desire itself may contain a painful element, because the individual is temporarily unable to respond the way he has been stimulated to do. The agreeable psychic tone which results from the gratification of desire more than offsets a temporarily painful element.
It is this aroused but temporarily unsatisfied condition of psychic nature, or desire, that Ward believed to be the dynamic force in individual life and hence in social life. To point simply to an unsatisfied state of the psychic organism as the dynamic social agent is to overlook the factors conditioning desire. Desire is a complex of affective and cognitive mechanisms resulting from the interplay of environmental stimuli and innate tendencies. It is in part an habitual seeking after objects, which thereby become values that give the organism a pleasant reaction tone but do not entirely satisfy it, and thus act as stimuli for further search after the desired objects or values.
All the natural impulses, the feelings, emotions, sentiments may become organized into what W. I. Thomas calls "wishes ;" he classifies four : (I) the desire for new experience, (2) the desire for security, (3) the desire for recognition, (4) and the desire for response. The last mentioned should perhaps be put first, for it appears to be basic to all the others. The simpler forms of life, even the most elementary, are characterized by response to stimuli but cannot be said to have desires, with attention fixed on remote objectives. We therefore may refer to the fourth mentioned desire as a basic mechanism of organic life. In a higher form it appears as a desire for social response. The desire for recognition definitely reflects the stimuli which come from social life; it expands into the desire for power. The desire for security is evidently elemental and primary; it is made up largely of the self-preservation impulses. The desire for new experience leads out into the desire to do, to achieve. Thomas' fourfold classification seems to be primarily individualistic. There may be also a fundamental desire to aid, to help. Its objective is not primarily the individual's satisfaction, but rather the growth and satisfaction that others experience. This ultimately becomes an ethical attitude.
REPRESSED FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS
When a neuro-muscular mechanism is stimulated the natural tendency is for the neural process to run its course and issue in some form of motor activity. This process being largely physiological and psychological
( 20) takes place in accordance with the nature of the environmental stimulus and not necessarily in harmony with socially derived standards of conduct. The child cries for candy when it would be bad for him ; he wishes to stay up beyond his regular bedtime, but regularity in sleeping hours is decreed; he wants a bicycle when in the judgment of his parents the dangers of bicycle riding are great, and the request is denied: in these illustrative instances, which might be multiplied without end, environmental factors have served as stimuli to perform actions that better adult judgment cannot permit. The ordinary adult reply to the child is "don't", and the stimulated activity in the child is repressed before reaching its fruition. This released but "blocked" energy wells up and acts as a drive to emotional mechanisms, and thus may be expressed in harmful ways. Sometimes an individual after suffering bitter disappointment threatens to take his own life. Crying often serves as a means of discharge of energy that is blocked by some objective "don't" to a desire that is in process of being fulfilled. Occasionally when a desire mechanism has been thwarted, the individual is "too angry" to express himself or to secure emotional satisfaction. In cases such as these repression may do great and lasting harm. The released but undischarged energy is held up in "mid-air" as it were, producing a fundamental disturbance of the whole organism. It is to complexes of this type that psychotherapy has offered considerable aid. It is important that the resentment which commonly follows repression be dissipated quickly and not be allowed to assume chronic forms, such as a permanently "balked disposition."
A boy or girl who possesses a high degree of energy naturally responds to countless environmental stimuli to activity, and his parents find themselves unwittingly "sitting on the lid." Through ignorance or sheer lack of ingenuity, they fail to keep the boy's energies engaged in constructive enterprises, and sooner or later find him guilty of destructive mischief. In rural life, there are wholesome opportunities for expressions of energy in field and farmyard, but in the city, these opportunities are cut off, one by one. Vacant lots disappear, and the streets become increasingly dangerous playgrounds until city ordinance forbids all play upon them. Houses encroach on all available yard space until dark hallways and alleyways alone are left as spaces in which the normal energies of youth may be released, but in these remaining places of rendezvous the stimuli are too often of a vicious and evil nature. Cities, through their encroachment
( 21) upon the playgrounds of youth act as crass repressive agents, meanwhile letting loose influences, which prey upon the repressed energies of untrained human nature. It is well to remember that psychic energy cannot be abolished. "If it is neither exploded nor converted, it is turned inwards, to lead a surreptitious, subterranean life." 
The Puritanic attitude, being repressive with reference to childhood, often produced a rooted hatred of the Sabbath, of church, or of other religious institutions or practices. Repression does not destroy, but causes a "welling up" of psychical energy which too frequently takes the form of sullenness, hatred, or even recalcitrancy. In its worthy aims of discipline, Puritanism neglected to study the psychology of repressed desires. Many church bodies have likewise neglected the psychology of repression and sublimation in their emphases upon the "Thou shalt pots" of religious discipline as related particularly to the play impulses of young people.
The "only" child has received a considerable amount of attention on the part of the Freudians and other psychoanalysists. The repression is that of the gregarious impulses and is produced indirectly by an absence of proper environmental stimuli of the gregarious and playful types, The "only" child has a normal social nature but possessing limited opportunities for expression of his social traits in the company of other children, his energies are not released. They well up until they force themselves over the void into non-social or anti-social directions. They may turn into organized moroseness, selfishness, sexual self-abuse, or other unfortunate channels. Such a child may receive a surplus of attention from parents, and hence develop a chronic expectation of receiving attention.
A child with a large endowment of energy may react to repression by "contrariness." He often makes requests which cannot be granted ; his environment as he sees it impinges upon him at nearly every turn. Being continually repressed, his energies express themselves in beliefs that the world is against him, that all is wrong. Sometimes these beliefs may lead to murder or suicide. Most phenomena of the last mentioned type have been preceded by long periods of repression of certain dominant desires, although occasionally life is taken as a result of an abrupt repression, as in the case of the jilted lover, or the jealous spouse.
Repression often leads to a super-development of imagination. Balked impulses may seek satisfaction in religious imagery. In fact one of the chief constructive phases of religious beliefs is that they are often sublimated opportunities for broken hopes and defeated ambitions. Of course
( 22) the imagery results of repression may easily take harmful trends as well as helpful ones.
Then there is wise repression, i. e., rational discipline. Without repression, the developing child succumbs to pernicious stimuli, and anti-personal as well as anti-social habits result. Youth cannot have the discretion of age, and thus many tendencies are repressed by parent or by society. This process is basic to self control, without which there can be no dependable conduct. But where repression is resorted to, the disciplinarian normally will provide for adequate sublimation. This need may often be met by a simple explanation of the dangers in the given stimulus, but if the stimuli are strong and insistent, then an alternative activity, future or present, will need to be provided.
Discipline is essential to both personal and social progress, but it cannot be achieved without obliging the individual to run the gauntlet of the psychical dangers incident to repression. As a youth cannot well safe-guard himself from these evils, the major responsibility rests on his elders, or those who have his training in charge. Since these persons may be unversed in the psychology of repression, they perpetrate all kinds of blunders upon relatively helpless children.
The importance of disseminating the available knowledge concerning the nature of repression and sublimation is seen in the cases of lenient parents who, dismayed by the effects of repression in their children, find themselves baffled. Oftentimes they have neglected to provide sublimated opportunities until repression produces such a storm of angry opposition, based on untoward habits, that they lose all control over their children.
Undue repression of the feelings and emotions has led to warped personalities, insanity, and social radicalism. Psychiatry offers valuable data for social psychology when it reveals case after case in which the impingement of social conditions or personal insult and injustice has upset an individual's feeling and emotional nature and thrown it into a distorted condition. The life histories of revolutionists in various countries would doubtless reveal that their revolutionary attitude arose out of feelings distorted by genuine or imagined injustice.
Affective human nature is evidently the most delicately adjusted and at the same time the most dynamic of all the factors involved in intersocial stimulation. It operates now subtly, now rashly, now without control, but always significantly in the formation of all social attitudes and values, while being at the same time the colorful dynamo of personal achievement and social progress.
1. The human organism is characterized by tonal qualities that are indicative of the favorable or unfavorable results of past experience.
2. Because of similarities in basic experiences, people are remarkably alike in their tonal or affective reactions.
3. Obstacles create organic disturbances with deep-seated feeling, glandular, and muscular manifestations called emotions.
4. Sympathy is an emotion that reveals the generic social tone of the organism.
5. Emotions that become organized in relation to personal and group values are known as sentiments.
6. Two basic sentiments with more far-reaching influences than any others are love and hate.
7. Generalizations of the impulses, feelings, emotions, sentiments into standard unfulfilled tendencies to act may be called desires.
8. The leading desires are: desire for social response, desire for security, desire for new experience, and the desire for recognition.
9. The undue or improper repression of the feelings and emotions leads to warped personalities.
10. Affective human nature is evidently the most delicately adjusted and also the most dynamic of all the factors involved in intersocial stimulation.
1. What does a pleasant feeling signify?
2. Why is it difficult to "argue down" the feelings?
3. Why are people of different races so much alike in their feeling reactions?
4. What is an emotion?
5. Distinguish between the causes of sorrow, fear, and of anger?
6. What is the relation of sympathy and social reform?
7. Compare admiration and respect.
8. Distinguish between jealousy and revenge.
9. What is hate?
10. What is love?
11. Explain the nature of desire.
12. What are leading desires?
13. What is meant by undue repression of the feelings?
14. Distinguish between repression and discipline.
1. How far are the feelings subject to modification?
2. Distinguish between feelings, emotions, and sentiments.
3. Why do children fear the dark?
4. Why is it not enough for a business man to be a sympathetic husband and parent?
5. Should every citizen indulge occasionally in capricious giving?
6. Is it true that one of the first qualifications of a public school teacher is to be happy?
7. Can one love his neighbor at will?
8. If one cannot love his neighbor at will, what is the next best thing to do?
9. What is the chief social value of hate?
10. What is the leading social value in suffering?
11. Explain : Friends are persons having about the same sets of prejudices.
12. Do you agree? "One does not fear effectually unless informed."
ASSIGNMENTS AND READINGS
Baldwin, J. M., Social and Ethical Interpretations (Macmillan, 1905), Chs. VI, VIII.
Cooley, C. H., Human Nature and the Social Order (Scribners, 1922), Ch. IV.
———, Social Organization (Scribners, 1909), Chs. XVI, XVII.
Ellwood, C. A., An Introduction to Social Psychology (Appleton, 1917), Ch. XI.
———, Sociology in its Psychological Aspects (Appleton, 1920), Chs. X, XIV.
Hobhouse, L. T., Mind in Evolution (Macmillan, 1901), Ch. IV.
Hocking, W. E., Human Nature and its Re-making (Yale Univ. Press, 1918), Part II.
McDougall, William, An Introduction to Social Psychology (Luce, 1914), Chs. IV, V.
Parmelee, M., The Science of Human Behavior (Macmillan, 1913), Ch. XIII.
Ribot, Th., The Psychology of the Emotions (Scribners, 1911), Part II, Ch. IV.
Ross, E. A., Social Control (Macmillan, 1910). Chs. II, III.
Smith, Adams, in Carver, Sociology and Social Progress (Ginn, 1905), Ch. XVI.
Tarde, Gabriel, Etudes de psychologie sociale, (Paris, 1897), pp. 297-86.
Thorndike, E. L., The Original Nature of Man (Teachers’ College, Columbia University, 1920), Ch. XI.
Wallas, Graham, Human Nature in Politics (Houghton Mifflin, 1906), Part I, Ch. I.
———, The Great Society (Macmillan, 1914), Ch. VI, VII, IX.
Williams, J. M., Principles of Social Psychology (Knopf, 1922), Chs.